Category

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Introduction

The last chapter of the dissertation yields the main points of the dissertation while highlighting research limitations of the study. This chapter encompasses the summary of the research which entails chapter-wise summary while mentioning the main findings of each chapter. This chapter is considered to be having the main gist of the study which can also be used by future researchers and encourage students to add the main findings into their study to increase the comprehensiveness of the study. Furthermore, this chapter aims to provide a brief conclusion while scrutinizing the aim and objectives of the study. This chapter moreover presents suggestions to the future researches to adopt the results obtained in this research while overcoming the research limitations of the study.

Summary of Research

The main aim of the study was to examine the perceptions of pharmacy professionals on the value of leadership training programmes. For this purpose, this particular research has been divided into four core chapters; hence this section entails the main findings of each chapter which can be added to conclude the dissertation.

            The first chapter is introduction in which the researcher has explicated the different types of leadership skills; i.e. operational leadership, clinical leadership and strategic leadership. Moreover, this chapter also highlights the aim and objectives of the study which concludes that the study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to address the research questions of the study. The first chapter of the dissertation provide a basic understanding and outline of how the research proceeds and what are the necessary aspects that has been undertaken by the researcher to carry out the research. This chapter also signifies that the researcher has selected mixed method approach to address the research questions.

            The second chapter is literature review which can be considered to provide the theoretical support to the researcher to conclude the dissertation. In the light of literature review and the analysis carried out, it has been identified that leadership training programmes have been adopted by most of the professional pharmacists and students in order to strategize leadership to meet the needs of professional leadership. This helps them to understand the leadership services, skills and attributes in the field of pharmacy. Moreover, it has also been identified in this chapter that the inclusion of leadership training programmes within the training of pharmacy residents significantly strengthens the personal competencies of the individuals and can communicate the vision strategy with viability between the business personnel and the students. It has further been evaluated and identified in this chapter that the perception of the pharmacy professionals towards leadership training programmes contributes in student and professional leadership development, increases the self-awareness and raise the profile of the pharmacists.

            The third chapter entails a detailed explanation of what type of research methods can be best-suited for this research. It has been explicated in this chapter that the researcher has used interpretevism philosophy in order to develop a new research strategy to identify the perceptions of the pharmacists regarding leadership training programmes. Inductive approach has been selected in order to gather information while observing different perceptions of the pharmacists. Moreover, this chapter also suggested that the researcher has selected the descriptive approach which assisted the researcher to incorporate in-depth analysis of the research topic. The researcher has gathered the information through both, primary as well as secondary sources to maintain the viability of the research. The evidences incorporated in this study by using mixed method approach. Research instrument used in this study was the questionnaire based upon Likert scale, containing open-ended questions. The researcher has carried out this research on the basis of convenience sampling while maintaining the ease of accessibility and proximity of the researcher. 80 workers and 13 managers were selected while 10 pharmacies were selected. Furthermore, the researcher has adopted statistical and thematic analyses techniques to analyse the responses of the study.

            The next chapter in analysis and discussion chapter in which the researcher has carried out the thematic and statistical analysis to analyse the responses of the study. It has been analysed through the analysis that student leadership development is the considered to be the main dimension of leadership training program in the context pharmacy. This is because pharmacists are aware of the merits of continuous professional development which help the students to develop new as well as existing competencies of the students. It has also been depicted from the analyses conducted that future pharmacists with the vision of leadership and persistent commitment can lead change in the pharmaceutical industry. The results of the statistical and thematic analysis showed that leadership training programs provide value to the development of leadership mechanisms in the pharmacy students. In the light of thematic analysis, it has been signified that the strategic leadership approach has been the declared the best-suited approach for pharmacists which help them promote teamwork and enhance decision-making capabilities while improving the  communication between the professionals and the patients.

            The last chapter is the conclusion and recommendation chapter in which the researcher has concluded the research by highlighting the main points of the dissertation. In this chapter, the research has also provided recommendations to future researchers in order to carry out a more comprehensive study on the basis of the findings of this research while overcoming the research limitations. It has been conclude di n this chapter that pharmacists believe that leadership training programs are important in order to establish the leadership competencies and skills within students, as well as the pharmacists themselves. It has also been concluded in this chapter that the leaders of pharmacy are eager to apply their existing knowledge, abilities and skills in order to address dormant health care needs of patients.

Research Limitations

According to Cohen, Manion and Morrison, (2013) research limitations refer to limitation in results and conclusions drawn in the study based on methodological weaknesses or limitations in the scope of the study. Firstly, the sample size in the study is relatively small as and the study could only conduct 10 interviews and 76 questionnaires. It is believed that reliability and validity of the results and conclusions could have been increased by conducting more interviews and a larger scale survey questionnaire. The scope of the study is also limited because it focuses on studying perceptions of pharmacy professionals only and does not include other relevant factors such as students. Furthermore, the results of this study are also limited to pharmacy professionals in UK and may not necessarily reflect the perceptions of professionals in other countries and regions.

Future Research and Development

The main aim of this study was to analyse how the leadership training and development programmes are being perceived by the professional pharmacists. In this regard, the researcher has carried out a detailed research while the inclusion of different past-conducted studies has significantly elevates the overall viability of the study. It has been evident that limited data and information is present regarding the perceptions of pharmacists towards leadership training programmes. The evidences and incidents highlighted in this study signifies that how leadership and managerial assisted the researcher to recognise the importance of leadership training and development programs. The findings of this study encourage the future researchers and students to develop a framework in order to recognise their role as an effective leader, underpinning the importance of leadership training programmes.

For future research, it has been implicated that the researchers should focus upon adding the leadership programmes as a major part of the pharmacy curriculum. This would significantly allow the researcher to analyse how the inclusion of leadership training programs in the curricula affects the leadership engagement within the institutions. The future research can be carried out by the researchers by focusing on the educational research on leadership, training and development programs. Moreover, a viable evaluation and monitoring system should be allocated for both pharmacists as well as students in order to prepare both to manage the professional challenges regarding the leadership and its training. This is because it is necessary to track the effectiveness of the leadership of professionals and the students in order to evaluate the involvement of each person with regards to the leadership instructions.

The limitations of the study can be mitigated when future researcher can carry out a more comprehensive study while taking a much larger sampling size of the study. This would allow the researchers to gather information form larger population. This would eventually increase the overall validity and reliability of the study as large number of responses would be added, with enlightening responses and information. Moreover, future investigators can carry out the study by not only emphasising upon a particular region, however by undertaking several regional scenarios. This would allow the researchers to conducts and viable understanding of differential regional aspects and their contribution to the research questions of this study. Future research can also be conducted by focusing on multiple professions as well. The inclusion of different regions and different professions would allow the researcher to generalise the findings in wider context.

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Appendix

Questionnaire

This questionnaire is specifically prepared for an academic research. For the purpose of this research, the researcher has to investigate how pharmacy professionals perceive the value of leadership training programmes. Kindly give your responses by (ü) an appropriate option for each of following question:

Name ___________________________________________________

Contact Number ______________________ Email id: _________________________________

Gender: Male o          Female o

Age: 21-30 o  31-40 o          41-50 o          51 and above o

Organization: _____________________

Level of Education

  • Bachelor Student
  • Master Student
  • Doctoral Student
  • Post-Doctoral Training

Your occupational experience:

  • Below 1 year
  • 1 year – 3 years
  • 3 – 8 years
  • 9-12 years
  • 12 years and above

Please rate your responses by ü the value that you think is more appropriate:

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
0 1 2 3 4
Perceptions of pharmacy professionals 1 2 3 4 5
Student Leadership Development
Student leadership development is the main dimension of leadership training program in pharmacy.
It is responsibility of pharmacy institutes to provide valuable experiences to its students in order to successfully integrate leadership development program.
Continuous Professional Development
Pharmacists are aware of the benefits of continuous professional development
CPD helps pharmacist in developing new competencies which are related to leadership.
Higher management support and access to the resources that facilitate the learning needs builds confidence and empower the pharmacy professionals, in the process of CPD
Facilitating Self-awareness
Pharmacy leaders are willing to apply all their existing and new knowledge, abilities, talents and skills for addressing latent health care needs of patients.
The experience based learning tactics enable the young pharmacists to become self-aware of their potential strengths and weaknesses
Intentional and Visible Institutional Commitment
Pharmacy institutions should have commitment to practice leadership skills for the students
Faculty members and administrators can equally contribute and flourish the environment in pharmacy schools to foster leadership
Raising Profile of Pharmacists
The pharmacy leaders have been expressing their commitment towards the best pharmaceutical practices
Future pharmacists with the vision of leadership and persistent commitment can lead change in the pharmaceutical industry
Value of leadership training programs
Leadership training programs are important for establishing leadership skills in pharmacist.
Pharmacy residents provide the incorporation of the leadership training program for helping the students and young professionals for meeting the needs to leadership in the profession.
Leadership training programs provide value to the development of leadership mechanisms in the pharmacy students.

Thank You 

Interview Questions

Q1. In your opinion, what is the significance of leadership programs for the pharmacists?

Q2. To what extent, pharmacy trainees show interest in leadership training and understand the importance of developing leadership skills?

Q3. Which leadership positions in a pharmacy organization you find effective for the student’s learning?

Q4. Do you think that the leading pharmacists are considered to be the influencers stewarding medication to the patients?

Q5. What are your perception regarding Leadership Training Programmes in terms of continuous professional development and enhancing the pharmacist profiles?

Q6. Please suggest some recommendations regarding leadership for the pharmacists.