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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS

Introduction

The following section is planned towards presenting the insights from the respondents of the study in the form of findings of the research. The chapter will facilitate the readers in understanding the main theme of the research which is directed towards the perception of the pharmacist for the value of leadership programs. The research process was conducted through compiling quantitative and qualitative feedback from pharmacist professionals and the non-managerial workers for the purpose of getting their reviews on the importance of leadership in the clinical practices. The researcher surveyed 76 workers of the pharmacies and conducted interviews of managerial staff in pharmacies from 10 managers. In the chapter, the researcher has facilitated demographic analysis, descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Furthermore, the interview responses have been presented in the form of themes. Finally, the chapter also includes a section of discussion which reflects on the objectives achievement of the research.

Demographic Analysis

Gender of Respondents

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 33 43.4 43.4 43.4
Row 2, Content 2 Female 43 56.6 100.0
Total 76 100.0 100.0
round data anylisis

It can be reviewed from the graph and chart presented above that out of 76 respondents, there were 33% of the male respondents, whereas, 43% of the respondents were female. This depicts that majority of the respondents were female pharmacists for the study that can also be viewed from the pie-chart presented above.

Age of Respondents

Age

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 21-30 20 26.3 26.3 26.3
31-40 26 34.2 34.2 60.5
41-50 18 23.7 23.7 84.2
51 and above 12 15.8 15.8 100.0
Total 76 100.0 100.0
round4

It can be observed from the table and pie chart presented that out of 76 respondents, 20% of the respondents were from the age group of 21-30 years, 26% of the respondents were from the age group of 31-40 years, 18% were from the age group of 41-50 years and the remaining 12% were from the age group of 51 years and above. This depicts that majority of the respondents were from the age group of 31-40 years of age.

Level of Education of Respondents

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Bachelor student 21 27.6 27.6 27.6
Master student 22 28.9 28.9 26.3
Doctor student 21 27.6 27.6 84.2
Postal doctor training 12 15.8 15.8 100.0
Total 76 100.0 100.0
round5

It can be viewed from the table presented above that 21% of the respondents out of 76 were bachelors, 22% were masters, 21% of the respondents have completed their doctoral education and the remaining 12% of the respondents have completed their post-doctoral training. This reflected that most of the respondents have masters level of education serving as the pharmacists.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Below 1 year 8 10.5 10.5 10.5
1 year - 3year 16 21.1 21.1 31.6
3-8 years 24 31.6 31.6 63.2
9-12 years 11 14.5 14.5 77.6
12 yearsand above 17 22.4 22.4 100.0
Total 76 100 100
round6

It can be observed from the table that out of 76 respondents, 8% have below than 1 year experience of occupation, 16% lied in the bracket of 1 years-3 years, 24% of the respondents were from the occupation bracket of 9-12 years, and remaining 17% were from the bracket of 12 years and above. However, it can be interpreted that the majority of the respondents from the occupation bracket of 3-8years having experience to working being in a pharmaceutical company or serving as the pharmacist.

Descriptive Analysis

Perceptions of pharmacy professionals

student leadership development in the main dimension of leadership training program in pharmacy 

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 13 17.1 17.1 17.1
Agree 27 35.5 35.5 52.6
Neutral 9 11.8 11.8 64.5
Disagree 4 5.3 5.3 69.7
Strongly disagree 4 5.3 5.3 69.7
Strongly disagree 23 30.3 30.3 100.0
Total 76 100.0 100.0

The above table highlighted here reflects that the perception of the pharmacy professionals by the statement that the student leadership development is considered as the main dimension for leadership training program in the pharmacy. From the results, it was found that 13% of the respondents were strongly agree with the statement that student leadership development should be incorporated in the pharmacy programs, 27% also agree with the statement making it an accumulated 52%. Moreover, 9% of the respondents remained neutral to the statement. On the contrary, an accumulated 27% of the respondents were not in the favour of the statement.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 28 36.8 36.8 36.8
Agree 26 34.2 34.2 71.1
Neutral 13 17.1 17.1 88.2
Disagree 7 9.2 9.2 97.4
Strongly Disagree 2 2.6 2.6 100.0
Total 76 100.0 100.0

It was found from the table presented above that a total of 71% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that it is considered as the responsibility of the pharmacy institutes to its students for the successful integration of leadership development program. Around 13% of the respondents remained neutral to this statement, inferring that either they do not wanted to answer to this statement or does not understand the nature of question. In addition to the findings, 9% of the respondents were not in the favor of the statement suggesting that majority supported the statement. 

Pharmacists are aware of the benefits of continious professional development

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 15 19.7 19.7 19.7
Agree 30 39.5 39.5 59.2
Neutral 14 18.4 18.4 77.6
Disagree 5 6.6 6.6 84.2
Strongly Disagree 12 15.8 15.8 100.0
Total 76 100.0 100.0

The above table has been directed towards the question statement that the pharmacist are aware about the benefits of the continuous professional development. To which 15% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement, whereas, 30% only agree with the statement. Moreover, 14% of the respondents remained to the statement and the remaining 17 of the respondents were not the favour of the statement that the pharmacists are aware of the benefits related to the continuous professional development.

CPD Helps pharmacist in developing new competencies which are related to leadership

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 22 28.9 28.9 28.9
Agree 24 31.6 31.6 60.5
Neutral 12 15.8 15.8 76.3
Disagree 6 7.9 7.9 84.2
Strongly Disagree 12 15.8 15.8 100.0
Total 76 100.0 100.0

The above table highlighted here reflects that Continuous Professional Development CPD helps pharmacist in developing new competencies which are related to leadership. From the results, it was found that 22% of the respondents were strongly agree with the statement that CPD Helps in the development of new competencies among the pharmacist, 24% also agree with the statement making it an accrued 61%. Additionally, 12% of the respondents remained neutral to the statement. On the different, an accumulated 18% of the respondents were not in the favour of the statement. However, the majority was still in the favour of the statement.

Higher management support  and access to the resource that facilitate the learning needs to build confidence and empower the pharmacy professional

pharmacy leaders are willing to apply all their existing and new knowledge abilities, talent and skills for addressing latent health care needs of patients.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 32 42.1 42.1 42.1
Agree 15 19.7 19.7 61.8
Neutral 15 19.7 19.7 81.6
Disagree 4 5.3 5.3 86.8
Strongly Disagree 10 13.2 13.2 100.0
Total 76 100.0 100.0

The above table highlighted here pharmacy leaders are willing to apply all their existing and new knowledge, abilities, talents and skills for addressing latent health care needs of patients. From the results, it was instituted that 27% of the respondents were strongly agree with the statement that student leadership development should be incorporated in the pharmacy programs, 19% also agree with the statement making it an accumulated 61%. Moreover, 15% of the respondents remained neutral to the statement. On the other hand, an accrued 19.8% of the respondents were not in the favour of the statement.

The experience based learning tactics enable the young pharmacists to become self-aware of thier potential strengths and weaknesses

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 27 35.5 35.5 35.5
Agree 19 25.0 25.0 60.5
Neutral 15 19.7 19.7 80.3
Disagree 4 5.3 5.3 85.5
Strongly Disagree 11 14.5 14.5 100.0
Total 76 100.0 100.0

The above table highlighted here that the experience based learning tactics enable the young pharmacists to become self-aware of their potential strengths and weaknesses. From the outcomes of the table, it was observed that 42.1% of the respondents regarded the fact as important that the experience based learning tactics enables the young pharmacists to become self-aware of their weaknesses and strengths, 19.7% also agree with the statement making it an accumulated 61.8%. In addition, 19.7% of the respondents remained neutral to the statement. On the other hand, an accumulated 18.5% of the respondents were not in the favour of the statement. This highlights that majority supported the question statement.

Pharmacy instituitons should have commitment to practice leadership skills for the students

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 32 42.1 42.1 42.1
Agree 17 22.4 22.4 64.5
Neutral 14 18.4 18.4 82.9
Disagree 5 6.6 6.6 89.5
Strongly Disagree 8 10.5 10.5 100
Total 76 100.0 100.0

From the findings presented in the table above, it can be interpreted that 42.1% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that pharmacy institutions should have commitment to practice leadership skills for the students. In addition 22.4% only agree, whereas, 18.4% remained neutral to the idea presented. On the other hand, a total of 17% of the respondents were not in the favour of the question statement. Therefore, majority supported the view that the pharmacy institution should have commitment to practice the leadership skills for the students.

facuilty members and administators can equally contribute and florish the enviroment in phamacy schools to foster leadership

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 26 34.2 34.2 34.2
Agree 23 30.3 30.3 64.5
Neutral 13 17.1 17.1 18.6
Disagree 5 6.6 6.6 88.2
Strongly Disagree 9 11.8 11.8 100
Total 76 100.0 100.0

From the results presented in the table above, it can be construed that 34.2% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that faculty members and administrators can equally contribute and flourish the environment in pharmacy schools to foster leadership. In continuation to the results, 30.3% only agree with the statement. However, 17% remained neutral highlighting either they were not aware of the question or does not want to comment on it. On the contrary side, a total of 18.4% of the respondents were not in the favour of the question statement.

The pharmacy leader have been expressing thier commitment towards the best pharmaceutical  practices 

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 33 43.4 43.4 43.4
Agree 16 21.1 21.1 64.5
Neutral 14 18.4 18.4 82.9
Disagree 5 6.6 6.6 89.5
Strongly Disagree 8 10.5 10.5 100
Total 76 100.0 100.0

From the results presented in the table above, it can be construed that 43.4% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that the pharmacy leaders have been expressing their commitment towards the best pharmaceutical practices. In addition to the results, 21% of the respondents only agree with the statement. Conversely, 18.4% remained neutral emphasising either they were not aware of the question or does not want to comment on it. On the contrary side, a total of 17% of the respondents were not in the favour of the question statement.

Future pharmacists with the vision of leadership and persistent commitment can lead change in a phamacetuical industy

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 33 43.4 43.4 43.4
Agree 16 21.1 21.1 64.5
Neutral 14 18.4 18.4 82.9
Disagree 5 6.6 6.6 89.5
Strongly Disagree 8 10.5 10.5 100
Total 76 100.0 100.0

From the results presented in the table above, it can be seen that 15.8% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that future pharmacists with the vision of leadership and persistent commitment can lead change in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition to the results, 35.5% of the respondents only agree with the statement. Contrariwise, 11.8% remained neutral emphasising either they were not aware of the question or does not want to comment on it. On the differing side, a total of 36% of the respondents were not in the favour of the question statement.

Leadership training program are important for establishing leadership skills in pharmacist.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 28 36.8 36.8 36.8
Agree 26 34.2 34.2 71.1
Neutral 13 17.1 17.1 88.2
Disagree 7 9.2 9.2 97.4
Strongly Disagree 2 2.6 2.6 100
Total 76 100.0 100.0

The table highlighted above highlights on the statement that the leadership training programs are important for the establishment of the leadership skills in the pharmacists. For this statement, a total of 71% of the respondents were agreeing with the fact presented in this question. In addition to the above statement, 17% remained neutral to the statement depicting either they were not aware of the question or does not want to remark on it. Moreover, there were 12% of the respondents who disagree with the question statement.

IT helps to providing personal refelection to the pharmacists.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 15 19.7 19.7 19.7
Agree 30 39.5 39.5 59.2
Neutral 14 18.4 18.4 77.6
Disagree 5 6.6 6.6 9.2
Strongly Disagree 12 15.8 15.8 100
Total 76 100.0 100.0

The table highlighted above highlights on the proclamation that leadership programs help in providing reflection to the pharmacists. For this statement, a total of 59% of the respondents were agreeing with the fact presented in this question. In addition to the above statement, 18.4% remained neutral to the statement depicting either they were not aware of the question or does not want to remark on it. Furthermore, there were 22% of the respondents who disagree with the question statement.

Pharmacy residents provide the incorporation of the leadership training program for helping the students and yound professionals for meeting the needs to leadership in the profession.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 22 28.9 28.9 28.9
Agree 24 31.6 31.6 60.5
Neutral 12 15.8 15.8 100.0
Disagree 6 7.9 7.9 84.2
Strongly Disagree 12 15.8 15.8 100
Total 76 100.0 100.0

The table stressed above highlights on the proclamation that the pharmacy residents provides the incorporation for the training programs in order to help young students for meeting the needs of leadership. In accordance with the statement, a total of 60% of the respondents were agreeing with the fact presented in this question. In addition to the above statement, 15.8% remained neutral to the statement depicting either they were not aware of the question or does not want to remark on it. Furthermore, there were 22% of the respondents who disagree with the question statement.

Leadership training programs provide value to the development of leadership mechanisms in the pharmacy students.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 22 28.9 28.9 28.9
Agree 14 18.4 18.4 47.4
Neutral 12 15.8 15.8 63.2
Disagree 5 6.6 6.6 69.7
Strongly Disagree 23 30.3 30.3 100
Total 76 100.0 100.0

The last question of the questionnaire talks about the leadership training programs which provides value to the leadership development mechanisms for the pharmacy students. From the analysis, it was revealed that a total of 48% of the respondents agreed with the statement and 15.8% were neutral to the question. On the other hand, there were 36% of the respondents who negated with the statement that the leadership training programs provide value for the development of leadership mechanism in the pharmacy students.

 Correlation Analysis

correlations

Perceptions_of_pharmacy_professionals Value_of_leadership_training_programs
Perception_of_pharacy_professionals Pearson_Correlation sig (2-tailed) N 1 , 76 0923,.000,76
Valude_of_leadership_training_programs Pearson Colleration (sig 2-tailed) N .923,.000,76 1,76

The table highlighted above represented the correlation between the perceptions of pharmacy professionals with the value of leadership training programs. The correlation between the dependent and independent variable is estimated at 0.923 which depicts that perception of the pharmacy professionals is strongly correlated with the leadership training programs. 

Regression Analysis

Model Summary

Model R R Square Adjust R square Std Error of the estimate
1 .923 .852 .850 .36250

The table presented highlights the model summary of the regression analysis. From the table, it can be identified that the adjusted R2 of the model is .923 with the R2 estimated at .850 implying that the regression explains 85% of the variance between the variables.

ANOVA

Model Sum of squares df Mean Square F Sig
1 Regression 56.187 1 56.187 427.558 .000

a. Dependant Variable : perception_of_phamacy_professional

b.Predictors : (Constant) value of leadership training programs

The ANOVA tables describe the fitness of model for the research. It can be viewed that the sig value is estimated at 0.000 explaining that perception of pharmacy professionals can be explained by the predictor (Value of leadership programs) for the present study.

Coefficents

Model Unstandardized Coefficents Standardrized Coefficients,Beta t Sig
1 (Constant) .323 .070 4.631 .000
Value_of_leadership_training_program .763 .037 .923 20.678 .000

The table of co-efficient reflects the outcome of regression analysis. For the present research, all values are significant because they are estimated to be lesser than 0.005 as depicted in the table above.

Thematic Analysis

Significance of the Leadership Programmes for the Pharmacists for enhancing their skills and competencies

The first theme is directed towards highlighting the significance of the leadership programmes for the pharmacists’ trainees. In the light of the study Hodgson, Pelzer and Inzana (2013), effective leadership training programmes can help in building competencies and strengths in the young professionals. Upon asking the significance of leadership programmes for the pharmacy professionals, interviewee 1 stated in the interview that,

“Pharmacists belong to the field where they have to continuously update their knowledge and skills for remaining consistent with the industry. And you would also know that the profession of the pharmacy relies on the leadership guidance for bringing evolution in this practice while there is a transition in healthcare. So I believe that different institutions should design leadership programmes so that the pharmacists can revamp their competencies.”

In response to the question asked, the interviewee 5 reflected in the statement that,

“Yeah there is a high significance for the training programs in the profession of pharmacy because eventually it is the pharmacist who guides you with taking appropriate medications and is one step further than the doctor. In further, it is necessary for the institutions to set programs where they are facilitated with the opportunities that entailed interactions and activities that indicates the leadership development which is very necessary for the pharmacists”

From the responses above, it can be observed that the managers treated the leadership development programs as highly important for the pharmacists because it will help them in enhancing their skills and competencies. Moreover, it will help the young pharmacists in achievement for their career goals in the field of pharmaceuticals.

Effective Leadership Positions in a Pharmacy Organization for the Student’s Learning

The second theme of the research talks about the effective leadership positions in the pharmacy organisations which can be beneficial for the student learning. According to Aspden et al. (2017), pharmacy is considered as the sensitive profession for which authentic knowledge of field is an important element for the future pharmaceutical. However, the leadership skills are equally important within the sensitive profession so as to cope up with the challenges faced by the pharmacists. In the light of effective leadership position asked by the interviewers, the interviewee 6 highlighted that,

“It is very much knowledgeable that the pharmacists in the present industry require appropriate and reliable knowledge because one mistake can be risky for the people. So, such kind of pressure can be reduced by focusing on the decision making skills and the leadership programs should help them in taking actions according to their expertise and knowledge”.

For the response of this question, interviewee 3 highlighted that,

“I have been serving in the pharmaceutical company for the past 13 years and yet I believe that there is a continuous need of strategies leadership within the companies so they can plan their strategies according to their profession, knowledge, expertise they have and vice versa. I believe that it better promotes teamwork rather than taking any other unknown approach for the leadership”

From the interview analysis for the present theme, it was made evident by the interviewee who was experienced in the field of pharmaceutical stating that the strategic leadership should be implemented in order to manage the pharmacists and empower leadership skills which is necessary for their profession.

Effectiveness of the Leadership Training Programme for the Continuous Development of Pharmacists

The following theme examines the effectiveness of the leadership training programme for the continuous development of the pharmacists in the pharmaceutical industry. In the light of the study conducted by Aspden et al. (2017), it was highlighted that the continuous professional developments helps the pharmacists in enhancing their skills and motivate them towards their profession. In accordance with this statement, the interviewee 9 highlighted by the statement that,

“Yes continuous development for the pharmacists is necessary because according to my experience I have found that one could very quickly promote in the field of pharmacy because the promotion completely relies on your guts and skills you have got. In addition, the continuous development should be the motto of every leadership training programme because it helps in enhancing the skills and creates self-confidence in the people with respect to their profession”

In response to the statement, interviewee 2 stated in this interview that,

“Yes I find the continuous development of the pharmacists very effective because it will help them to grow further and excel in their field as we all know that this profession requires a lot of skills and potential of the people to manage the things accordingly. So the pharmacists are necessary for building an effective set of skills where they could practice it abruptly.”

It was further added by the interviewee 7 that,

“Most of the pharmacists are unaware of the perks of continuous development as to what level it can help them to grow and nourish themselves in their career. However, I believe that they should have focused on gathering leadership skills by attending webinars,

conferences, and meetings for updating their skills and cope up with highly competitive pharmacological environment which is off course for their benefit and development.”

From the analysis presented in the responses, it can be reviewed that the continuous development has been considered as highly effective for the pharmacists because it will help them in their professional life to grow and empower their skills in the field.

Discussion

Objective 1: A literature review will first be conducted to gather evidence from current research in this field and provide a scope on what leadership training provision is currently available for pharmacy professionals and whether this has been evaluated and it’s perceived values.

The first objective proposed by the researcher is theoretical in nature which is directed towards carrying out literature review for gathering evidence on the leadership programs that is available for the pharmacy professionals. The objective was successfully achieved by the researcher by reviewing different theories and concepts related to the leadership programs for pharmacy professionals. In the light of Helling and Johnson (2014, p.1348), it was revealed that the training of leadership is considered as the significant part of the residency programs in pharmacy. However, the previous researches has duly emphasised upon the importance of the leadership training programmes for the effectiveness of the pharmacy experts and professionals. Moreover, it has also been identified in a number of studies that the pharmacists all over the world have an obligation and respective responsibility to perform various functions as a leader. Therefore, the perceived values for the pharmaceutical field highlighted that the leadership is practised in this field which can build empowerment and confidence among young professionals and students.

Objective 2: The literature review will be used to establish the most appropriate method to use for this research proposal through building on what has worked in the past. The method will include both quantitative and qualitative results in the form of surveys and interviews

The following objective is associated towards the establishment of the appropriate method for the research proposal in the light of the past studies. The methods were also discussed in terms of both qualitative and quantitative results from interviews and surveys. The objective was accomplished by the researcher successfully as in the literature, there were a number of studies highlighted which reflected on the past studies related to the leadership and the clinical practices of the pharmacists which enhances their skills and expertise. Moreover, the researcher undertaken both quantitative and qualitative research for identifying the significance of the leadership programs along with the perception of the pharmacists to which it was revealed that there is a significant relationship between the perception of the pharmacist and the value of leadership programmes in the field of pharmaceutical industry.

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Appendix

Questionnaire

This questionnaire is specifically prepared for an academic research. For the purpose of this research, the researcher has to investigate how pharmacy professionals perceive the value of leadership training programmes. Kindly give your responses by (✔) an appropriate option for each of following question:

Name: ___________________________________________________

Contact Number: ______________________

Email ID: _________________________________

Gender: Male      Female 

Age: 21-30       31-40       41-50       51 and above 

Organization: _____________________

Level of Education

 Bachelor Student
 Master Student
 Doctoral Student
 Post-Doctoral Training

Your occupational experience:

 Below 1 year
 1 year – 3 years
 3 – 8 years
 9-12 years
 12 years and above

Please rate your responses by ✔ the value that you think is more appropriate:

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
0 1 2 3 4
Perceptions of pharmacy professionals 1 2 3 4 5
Student Leadership Development
Student leadership development is the main dimension of leadership training program in pharmacy.
It is responsibility of pharmacy institutes to provide valuable experiences to its students in order to successfully integrate leadership development program.
Continuous Professional Development
Pharmacists are aware of the benefits of continuous professional development
CPD helps pharmacist in developing new competencies which are related to leadership.
Higher management support and access to the resources that facilitate the learning needs builds confidence and empower the pharmacy professionals, in the process of CPD
Facilitating Self-awareness
Pharmacy leaders are willing to apply all their existing and new knowledge, abilities, talents and skills for addressing latent health care needs of patients.
The experience based learning tactics enable the young pharmacists to become self-aware of their potential strengths and weaknesses
Intentional and Visible Institutional Commitment
Pharmacy institutions should have commitment to practice leadership skills for the students
Faculty members and administrators can equally contribute and flourish the environment in pharmacy schools to foster leadership
Raising Profile of Pharmacists
The pharmacy leaders have been expressing their commitment towards the best pharmaceutical practices
Future pharmacists with the vision of leadership and persistent commitment can lead change in the pharmaceutical industry
Value of leadership training programs
Leadership training programs are important for establishing leadership skills in pharmacist.
Pharmacy residents provide the incorporation of the leadership training program for helping the students and young professionals for meeting the needs to leadership in the profession.
Leadership training programs provide value to the development of leadership mechanisms in the pharmacy students.

Thank You 

Interview Questions

Q1. In your opinion, what is the significance of leadership programs for the pharmacists

Q2. To what extent, pharmacy trainees show interest in leadership training and understand the importance of developing leadership skills?

Q3. Which leadership positions in a pharmacy organization you find effective for the
student’s learning?

Q4. Do you think that the leading pharmacists are considered to be the influencers stewarding medication to the patients?

Q5. What are your perception regarding Leadership Training Programmes in terms of
continuous professional development and enhancing the pharmacist profiles?

Q6. Please suggest some recommendations regarding leadership for the pharmacists.