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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

The present chapter is intended to give a comprehensive and critical literature review for the following dissertation. With respect to the identified variables and aims and objectives of the study, the respective literature review sheds light on the concept of leadership and its types specifically related to pharmaceutical leadership. Moreover, the literature has also included the main points regarding the significance of leadership training program for the trainees as well as the perception of pharmacy professionals towards these programs. The primary research problem which has promulgated the following study is related to the lack of leadership initiatives and training programs within the pharmacy professionals. With changes in global technological standard, especially in the field of health and safety, has put more pressure on the respective institutions to ensure the implementation of effective leadership programs so the leaders can lead their subordinates in a more profound manner.

Concept of Leadership

Leadership is referred to as acting in a manner which effects the action of others. With respect to this, Paradis and Gauthier (2016) defined, that leadership in the field of pharmacy is considered to be the notion which further effects the development, efficiency and skills of pharmacists. The main concern might be the efficiency in the actions of future pharmacists. In this argument, Lähdevuori (2014) stated that the leadership is the inclusion of behaviours which purports higher employee engagement. This might lead to the notion that pharmaceutical scientists and pharmacists might have to adopt a uniform approach to leadership behaviours in order to influence future pharmacists in a best way possible.

Types of Leadership in Pharmacy

Leadership in pharmacy has been related to a development of highly influential pharmacists in the field. According to Aspden et al. (2017) pharmacist have been incorporated in a sensitive profession for which authentic knowledge of field is an important element for the future pharmaceutical. Amongst many types of leadership in pharmacy, the following can be considered to be the most important ones:

Strategic Leadership

According to Heffernan et al. (2013, p.155) strategic leadership is defined as the actions taken by the leaders which ensures the achievement of clear vision in the pharmaceutical practice. This might lead to the fact that strategic leadership in pharmaceuticals gives the reflection of benefits for using medical products and medicines. However, various arguments have been made related to the systems of healthcare services and facilities. For this matter, Zadbuke et al. (2013, p.98) explained that the strategic leadership does not only mean the inclusion of decision making and actions taken for influencing new comers in the industry but also related to having administrative and technical knowledge of medication and medical products. Moreover, they further identified that the main competencies in a strategic leader includes teamwork, decision making ability, motivation, teaching abilities and communication skills. This might imply that the leader in pharmaceuticals has been responsible for astound implementation of strategic plans as well as the establishment of organization where all the authentic services can be incorporated.

Operational Leadership

According to Shane and Vogt (2013, p.228) operational leadership is referred to leading the team in a hospital where the services are being aligned with the benefits provided to the patients. With respect to this, the leading pharmaceutical company might ensure that the patients are provided authentic resources, health facilities and other benefits in the system. On the other hand, Antonakis and House (2013, p.3) determined that operational leadership is also related to the identification of all the resources which can be applied in the process.

It is also known as process management which might imply that the management would be responsible for bringing integrated systems and frameworks in the organization leading towards the patient-focused approach with the premises. However, in the words of Borkowski (2015), the attitude and skills of an operational leader in the field of pharmacy leads towards action plan which does not only provide customer oriented mechanism in the health care system but also assist other trainees to develop their own skills and competencies in the field.

Clinical Leadership

According to Grethlein and Azar (2016, p.174) the pharmacists are being responsible for prescribing the medicines and medical products to the patients. This might mean that the credibility of their actions can be linked under the horizons of clinical leadership. However, Kyle, Firipis and Tietze (2015) said that clinical leadership is defined as the services provided by the pharmacists which include the intervention in the patient’s use of medicines. This can also be known as clinical responsibility.

Clinical leadership, according to Mannix, Wilkes and Daly (2013, p.10), is the inclusion of the actions of leader which ensure the safe use of medicines by the patients for which the development of skills also reflect in the actions of the future pharmaceutical scientists. With this regard, the system of hospital might be responsible for leading, educating, advising and supporting the health teams in a way which provide effectiveness in the use of medical products and medicines.

Pharmacists as Influencers

According to Mathews (2013) the leading pharmacists are considered to be the influencers due to the fact that their expertise is being used in stewarding medication and the respective field. However, Davis (2013,p.31) stated that better and authentic stewards of medication cannot necessarily linked with the medication expertise but also with the communication and trust building amongst the leader and the new pharmacists. This has led to the notion that having knowledge about the pharmaceuticals would not be enough without communicating the knowledge of the field to the new professionals.

According to Lee (2017) leading pharmacists are known to be influential due to their continual efforts and practice in order to improve quality and safety of medications for the patients. However, Dongen (2014, p.6) stated that there is a critical need for authentic leadership which would enable the change and growth of pharmaceuticals. It might lead to the notion that the schools and colleges are responsible for creating highly influential leaders in the field of pharmacy by employing the activities related to leadership development within the profession which would also be effective for facing future challenges as well.

Leadership Training Programmes

According to Helling and Johnson (2014, p.1348) leadership training is referred as an integral part of the residency programs in pharmacy. It has been identified in many studies that the pharmacists all over the world have an obligation to perform various functions as a leader. However, Kris-Etherton et al. (2014) explained that leadership is a fundamental component in profession which has been advancing the field of pharmacy. With respect this, leadership training programmes have been regarded as the serving mechanism for all the young professionals in advancing their professional requirements.  According to Patterson et al. (2013, p.223) pharmacy residents provide the incorporation of the leadership training program as a strategy to help the students and young professionals to meet needs to leadership in the profession. By doing this, the students and young professionals might be able to provide authentic and influential leadership services in the field of pharmacy.

Importance of Leadership Training Programmes for Pharmacy Trainees

According to Greco et al. (2013, p.143) leadership training programmes are important for establishing leadership skills in trainees. However, these programs might be considered to effective but only with the inclusion of effective curricula in the program.

Personal Strengths and Competencies

According to one study conducted by Hodgson, Pelzer and Inzana (2013, p.102) leadership training programmes are effective for building personal strengths and competencies in young professionals. This might be due to the fact that the leadership programmes develop an ability in a trainee to identify core strengths and using them in an effective manner. However, Rowitz (2013) said that leadership programs can include several leaning activities in which students would be able to devote considerable time. This might also imply that the young pharmacists would be able to achieve their career goals in pharmaceuticals.

The achievement of personal competencies, as explained by Owusu‐Obeng et al. (2014, p.1102), would lead towards the development of leadership skills. It could be because the trainee might be able to focus on decision making ability regarding it to be prerequisite for leadership development. However, it has been identified by Charani et al. (2013, p.188) that the curricula of leadership programs have been related to not only the personal strengths but also to the engagement with the working environment. The pertaining fact behind this notion might be that the trainees in the pharmaceuticals would be able to learn the credibility of their own actions amongst the other professionals working in the field.

According to Zapatka et al. (2014, p.378) the establishment of leadership training programmes has often been resulted in desired outcomes and competencies. These competencies could be regarded as a guiding mechanism for subsequent decision and understanding of content of leadership education. However, an argument has been made by Dow et al. (2013, p.952) that all the school of pharmacy have defining and distinctive competencies which provide different opportunities to all the trainees and young professionals. This might be regarded as the place to emphasise the pertaining issue with the leadership training programs. Nevertheless, the leadership program in pharmacy might be able to provide advocacy in the actions of individuals making them prone to building personal strengths and competencies.

Leading Change

According to Wanat and Garey (2013, p.200) the process of leadership development leads towards the inclusion of understanding change within the dynamics of pharmaceuticals. With regard to this, the leadership training programs would assist the trainees to comprehend the difference between adaptive system technical systems. However, Long et al. (2014, p.473) identified that leadership training programs would also lead toward the understanding of the trainees about how the leader should view change successfully. In addition to this, the understanding of such notion might lead towards building the ability of the person to lead change within their profession. In the words of Kamarudin et al. (2013, p.243) leading change means leading the whole team towards assessing positive outcome of change. The leadership training programs incorporate such measures which make the trainees self-focused in their actions. However, Lancaster et al. (2014, p.99) said that along with the self-focused competencies, the trainees would also be able to obtain knowledge-based competencies such as demonstration of leadership of the team. This might imply that leadership training programs assist the trainees to advocate cognitive domain for facilitating change in the field.

As defined by Capewell et al. (2014, p.18) leadership training programs in pharmaceuticals would enable the emerging professionals to investigate, discuss and develop the framework of leadership in a manner, which further bring change and reflect through the mission of the pharmaceutical institution. This might also be able to provide guiding principles for effective leadership resulting in retaining the knowledge of the field. However, Mehdi et al. (2014, p.387) posited that the development of model of leadership training programs has also been related to assuring leadership experiences. These experiences might be due to the effective programs through which the trainees can concisely communicate with the professionals and peers in pharmaceutical industry which is a core aim of any curriculum of leadership training program.

Articulation Skills

According to Brock et al. (2013, p.414) the leadership training programs are important for building the skills of articulating the message with clarity. It might be due to the fact that pharmacists deal with medicines and the medical products for which the understanding patient’s condition is important. The leadership training programs assist the trainees to understand how to communicate with the patients and provide medication accordingly. However, Kern et al. (2014) identified that due to the wide field of medicine, understanding the conditions of all the patients would be difficult to incorporate in the training program. Nevertheless, it would be important for the new comers in pharmaceuticals to develop persuasiveness and extemporaneous skills to communicate with the patients and articulating the message in an efficient manner. Ellard et al. (2014) stated that this can be provided by taking part in leadership training program. This is where articulation might also lead towards understanding contemporary issues in pharmaceuticals and provide effective debates within the profession.

According to George, Frush and Michener (2013, p.1603) in the curriculum of each leadership programs the students should be assigned with number of tasks which are associated with articulating the message. The ability of leading and participating in the leadership programs might require team-delivered patience care. Chahine, El-Lababidi and Sourial (2015, p.585) said that the team-based system of care in pharmaceuticals can be achieved through following integrated teamwork skills in the trainees. This might be done through the articulation of message exchanged in the pharmaceutical team leading towards providence of effective benefits to the patients. Due to this reason, leadership training program has been regarded as the pioneer of understanding and building skills in themself and proven to be an influencer leader in the occupation.

 

Leadership Awareness

According to Tregunno et al. (2014, p.257) leadership training programmes assist the trainees and upcoming professional to establish skills pertinent to the awareness every leader in pharmaceuticals requires. The skills, traits and values of the leaders as well as the leadership awareness might lead towards the development of high level commitment of the leader to professional life. However, Jardine et al. (2015) identified that the leadership awareness has included the main themes such as commitment to excellence, significance of self-reflection and the skills in choosing what to and how to lead. The retreat of the leadership program has been related to the material and concept taught in the curricula which are effective to expose the trainees to the challenges. According to Heflin et al. (2014, p.41) the inclusion of this retreat enables the young professionals to face the audience and practice with the astound professionals in the field. However, this might create other issues for trainees.

 Long, Spurgeon and Veronica (2013, p.11) said that there might be cynicism, fear and academic overload which lead towards the low performance and difficulty in understanding the various dimensions of the profession. However, this might be addressed by number of ways such as support mechanisms like indirect and direct financial support to the trainees. In order to activate student engagement in the leadership training program the academics should be included towards experiential education programs which also include ground-work for clinical immunization in pharmacies and advance medication process in the field. However, Brown et al. (2015, p.148) stated that leadership training programs enable the students to have additional opportunities of practicing innovation in the occupation. This could also be a part of leadership awareness which also provide the various rotations in the field of medication leading towards the reconciliation process in those institutions.

Creating a Vision

According to one study conducted by Weide (2014) the compelling vision for the future is being developed by training programs. These programs might be able to garner enthusiasm and the ability to be credible to the trainee’s own decision making process. One of the important features of the leadership training programs has been that it creates ability in the young professional to foresee the future and the efficacy of their actions. However, Temple, Jakubecz and Link (2013) said that the leadership development is also related to the communication of vision which can develop the desire for envision the future in pharmaceutical field. As defined by Mills, Blenkinsopp and Black (2013) the leadership training program has been related to the alignment of servant leadership, transformational leadership, and authentic leadership. For this purpose, the institutions would be encouraged to identify the process and instruments for creating development perspective in highly potential trainees.

According to one survey conducted by Pittenger et al. (2016, p.57) the development of vision has been related to observer and self-awareness component in the trainee. With respect to this, leadership training programs provide value to the development of leadership instruments in the pharmacy students. However, due to the developmental and longitudinal nature of leadership training programs, Irwin and Weidmann (2015, p.675) identified, the unique and innovative assessment approaches are provided to the trainees in order to create a vision. This might imply that it plays a crucial role in assessing leadership growth and development leading towards the continuous quality improvement in pharmaceutical services. In addition to this, creating vision might also influence future developments with regard to professionalism in the actions. This might be because the leaders have an ability to be credible for their actions which would ultimately lead towards the development of skills and learning how to create a vision for further future developments in pharmaceuticals.

Networking

According to Van Schaik, Plant and O’Brien (2015, p.52) networking in leadership is related to the skills which provide value to the pharmaceutical services. This might imply that leadership training programs might provide professional networking skills in the potential students. Successful leadership has been relied on the networking skills of the professionals. However, Swann et al. (2013, p.12) said that in the early stage of leadership training program the trainees might have a difficulty in building networking skills because it requires high level influential pharmacists.

Nevertheless, the relationship between trainer and the trainee creates through the level of engagement of the trainee in the leadership training program. This might also create new ideas and develop significant collaboration amongst the trainees as well as trainers. According to Nambudiri et al. (2013, p.96) the programs of leadership networking create opportunity for reorganizing change and leading the network skills in the trainees. With respect to this, each trainee might be provided with the professional pharmacists and learn how to effectively communicate with different units of the health care centres.

According to Bartelme et al. (2014, p.8) networking skills purport the leaders to address work-related issues. This might imply that leadership training programs are provided to the trainees in order to describe and discuss the meaning of networking and learning to face barriers and challenges in different sectors. However, Rosado et al. (2015) identified that this might be shaped by other different variable such as trainee-trainer relationship, pharmacists and the other young professionals. The trainees might be facilitated with the structured activities which would give distinctive network services to the trainees.

Personal Reflection

According to Kitzmiller et al. (2014, p.91) leadership training programs are important for providing personal reflection to the trainees. This might be due to the fact that these programs assist the trainers to gain experience in the field. However, an argument has been raised by Skledar, Doedyns and Yourich (2015.) that leadership training programs are significant for the purpose of connecting with the professional pharmacists and learning through their experiences.

In leadership training programs the students could be assigned with the tasks in which they would consider asking questions about their own competencies and skills as well as reflecting what has been learned throughout the training period. According to Ellard et al. (2016) integrating reflection activities are the important part of curriculum of leadership training program.  With respect to this, the professional pharmacists would be incorporating effective reflection in a highly effective program build future leaders in the field

Perception of Pharmacy Professionals towards Leadership Training Programmes

According to Antonakis and House (2013, p.3) leadership training program is considered to be the pioneer for leadership development which is a desired result of pharmacy curricula. Numerous stakeholders in pharmacy profession and pharmacy education have made it the most important task in a leadership development of new comers in a profession. However, Capewell et al. (2014, p. 18) said that leadership has a large variety of definition which is highly dependent upon the context. With regard to this, he further explained that pharmacy professionals think of leadership as s process through which a group of people gets influenced in order to achieve particular goals and objectives.

Student Leadership Development

As defined by Davis (2013, p. 31) student leadership development is the main dimension of leadership training program. Many professional pharmacists have been thinking it to have an experiential and longitudinal nature, which might be used to achieve student leadership development. With respect to this, the entry-level students on pharmaceuticals have instilled a purpose for the matter if developing necessary skills and competencies of leadership. However, Ellard et al. (2016) stated that for a life-long development and reflection the leadership training program curricula would vary in its elements which might be essential for Pharmacy development of leadership. For this matter, the individuals involved in leadership education for pharmacy might be provided with the guiding principles ultimately leading towards leadership development in students.

Many arguments have been given by number of researchers giving a different view of leadership training programs. Greco et al. (2013, p. 143) stated that leadership development in young trainees cannot be achieved by the cultivation of single course. In contrast, one of the studies based on the development of quality and characteristics indicators related to the best practices of leadership as well as advocacy among the pharmacy student in US. Furthermore, researcher had accumulated information from 54 pharmacy institutes via phone survey related to development of leadership through programs, courses and notable practices. The researcher has recommended as well as encouraging the Pharmacy schools to plan and introduce curriculum, co-curriculum and extracurricular activities in order to develop both leadership and advocacy development among the students. It is undeniable fact that SLD involves in developing behaviours and skills, which is gradual process and develops over the period of time. Therefore, leadership skills can be developed in students through the curriculum activities and programs (Heflin et al., 2014, p. 41).

In addition to this, one of the research studies conducted by Kern et al. (2014) suggested that effective integration of leadership plan should occur both vertically as well as horizontally. It is responsibility of pharmacy institutes to provide valuable experiences to its students in order to successfully integrate leadership development program. Moreover, Pharmacy institution must pay attention that ensures the adequate SLD support from advisors, environment, role models and mentors, provide multiple opportunities to pharmacy students in order to lead as well as practice leadership skills and through appropriate assessment criteria should be introduced through which success rate of leadership activities should be assessed that whether the programs are achieving their respective targeted leadership competencies or not.  Etherton et al. (2014) argued that leadership cannot alone be developed among the pharmacy students only through the curriculum and extracurricular activities related to leadership skills but it is of paramount importance that pharmacy schools should also recognize and integrate the professionalism, effective management, leadership and advocacy must be interconnected but they are not entirely inclusive of one another.

Continuous Professional Development

According to Lancaster et al. (2014) concept and process of the continuous professional development has been continuously emerged and explored. The researcher has define the term CPD is the commitment by professionals of any genre to continuously upgrade their skills and knowledge in order to remain competent in their professional work. However, there are several questions have also been raised with respect to pharmacy professionals’ attitudes and knowledge towards the newer concept of CPD approach. The scholar has further revealed that in Taxes, USA majority of the pharmacists were able to correctly determine the concept of CPD. On the other hand, nearly half of the research participants were not able to identify or even they did not heard of CPD approach ever in their professional life and even half of the respondents were not well aware of the CPD benefits in their professional life. One of the research studies conducted by Kyle et al. (2015) posited the evaluation of specific components of CPD.

The research study was based on the focus group of pharmacists in the UK and the finding of the research suggested that majority of the pharmacist do not feel like keeping their CPD record that contributes immensely in their pharmacy practices. Moreover, researcher has concluded that several Pharmacists are unaware of the CDP benefits and remained in the deniable state towards these emerging concepts that basically develop the new competencies related to leadership among the pharmacy professionals but lack of awareness is the major constraint in the acceptance of CPD in the pharmacy profession.

            Mannix, Wilkes and Daly (2013, p. 10) aimed to assess the habits as well as attitudes of pharmacy professional towards the CPD prior to implement an authorized country side system. The findings of the research suggested that participants were reportedly spent not more than 40 hours per year in CPD. One the other hand, 9.8 per cent of pharmacy professionals have never attended any CPD in their entire professional life. The researcher has identified the difference between the hospital pharmacist and primary care of community pharmacists and the finding stated that community pharmacist has undertaken the least amount of CPD as compare to hospital pharmacist. Therefore, Hospital pharmacists are more competent and possess leadership skills as compare to primary or community pharmacist.

Another study conducted by Aspden et al. (2017) identified the factors that affect the pharmacists’ attitudes towards CPD and that includes; positive or healthy workplace environment, higher management support and access to the resources that facilitate the learning needs, empowering the pharmacy professionals, confidence in the process of CPD and lastly motivation in Pharmacist for the CPD. The results suggested that younger pharmacists are more intrinsically motivated to engage in learning CPD than the older pharmacist. Furthermore, researcher has associated the CPD with the leadership development and further stated that pharmacists that are thoroughly involved and motivated to participate in the CPD are more likely to develop leadership skills among them.

Facilitating Self-awareness

According to Brock et al. (2013, p.414), self-awareness is the integral part of leadership development and in order to facilitate the development pharmacy schools are striving to provide their students complete or partial instruments that provide sufficient insights related to their personality, emotional intelligence, styles and talents. For that purpose, numerous pharmacy schools have been incorporating Clifton Strengths-finder tool that facilitate the students to learn about themselves and utilize their strengths and talents in leadership roles.

In the light of research studies conducted by Long et al. (2014, p. 473) suggested that leadership requires an adequate departure from the prevailing status quo. Leaders are someone that continuously and persistently looking for emerging opportunities to innovate and improve. In other words, it is essential for the pharmacy leaders that must be instilled or infected with the divine discontent with their profession. Pharmacy leaders must be willing to apply all their existing and new knowledge, abilities, talents and skills in order to address unmet or latent health care needs of today’s patients and society.

            In addition to this, pharmacy schools that aimed to emphasis on the co-curricular activities in order to develop and equip their students with an expectation to challenge the prevailing mind set and status quo. However, schools experience education programs related to development of leadership among the young pharmacists are overly burdened with numerous prior expectations to achieve the program aims successfully (Shane, Doedyns and Yourich, 2015). On the other hand, one of the research studies conducted by Weide (2014) posited that early pharmacy practice experience would be helpful in the young pharmacist with respect to improving their analytical and creative thinking skills. Similarly, advanced pharmacy practice experience helps students to practice role model and apply all their knowledge and skills to care of actual patients.

On the whole, these experience based learning tactics enable the young pharmacists the ability to become self-aware of their potential strengths and weaknesses. When pharmacists are well aware of their internal capabilities then ultimately it would positively affect their leadership skills and advocacy skills. Hence, experiential learning practices are extremely viable for the pharmacist in order to become self-aware and when they totally know themselves then it would be easier for them to exhibit their leadership skills in their professional settings and continuously strive to implement their leadership skills in their profession and reap maximum outcomes in terms of maximizing their effort in health care of their patients.

Intentional and Visible Institutional Commitment

According to Obeng et al. (2014, p.1102), faculty members or teacher as well as administrators are the role model for the aspiring pharmacists and should weave SLD into their goals and missions of their pharmacy institutes. In order to support the SLD environment, it is require having sufficient teachers, staff and other related resources. It is essential for the pharmacy schools to obtain maximum financial support and possess performance measurement tools that significantly support the SLD environment. Furthermore, if the financial budgeting goals are effectively linked with the overall institute strategic planning then leadership goals can be effectively achieved.

In addition to this, Patterson et al. (2013, p. 223) suggested that integrating the SLD goals and objectives into the overall institute strategic plan can draw attention to the message of faculty as well as administrator that are concerning the relevance of leadership development training and encouraging the pharmacy students to perceive that leadership is essentially important and being attractive and leadership development is achievable through consistent hard work. However, if the leadership goal is absent from the institution entire strategic objective, mission and vision of the pharmacy institution then it would be extremely difficult for the student to attain leadership skills.

            The AACP (2012) Faculties Task Force council provided the importance of the development of culture of expectation in pharmacy schools for the involvement as leaders. The report further stated that survey participants have provided their valuable insights on the importance of developing such culture that expects the young pharmacists to become the leaders. In addition to this, one of the research studies conducted by Temple, Jakubecz and Link (2013) examined that faculty members and administrators can equally contribute and flourish the environment in pharmacy schools, which is propitious to the creation of leadership among students in various ways. For that purpose, it is required from the faculty members to work along with the students in order to provide the criteria for the development of leadership, which supports non-positional and positional leadership and enable the students to differentiate leadership functions from managerial functions. Consequently, student based organization that exists in the pharmacy schools could be helpful and powerful source that attempts to dispel the myths related to leadership and resolve the confusion related to leadership among the students.

Raising Profile of Pharmacists

In general term, leaders have certain visions and dreams to achieve certain goal or objective. In similar way, pharmacy leaders have a vision of making pharmaceutical care the standard of practices in order to provide exceptional care to their patients. In addition to this, true leaders must have a shared set of values or vision with those people who agreed to follow and provide consistent support to those projects whose prime aim is to lessen the gaps between the reality and the vision. Therefore, pharmacy leaders must possess a shared vision related to providing exceptional pharmaceutical services up to the mark and provide exceptional patient care along with their supporters and followers.

It is core responsibility of leaders to stir the fire of passion among its followers and together they work for the betterment of their patients care (Wanat and Garey, 2013, p. 200).  One of the research studies conducted by Grethlein and Azar (2016, p. 174) argued that pharmacy students who embraced the vision of patient-centred pharmacy practice at local, national or even at international platforms. The pharmacy leaders have been expressing their commitment towards the best pharmaceutical practices verbally in several platforms but it is more important for them to depict their consistent and outstanding efforts in their practical patient care projects. Nevertheless, this appears to be inadequate in terms of sustainability to become a change agent and stimulate the similar action among their followers of peers the inspiring share vision that is sustainable in the pharmacy related practices.

            Irwin and Weidmann (2015, p. 675) discussed the concept of elephant in the room with respect to inspiring and encouraging the existing and future pharmacists with the vision of leadership and persistent commitment to lead the change through their vision in order to change pharmaceutical industry. However, every pharmacy institution has been showing their students an exemplary work of their talented faculty and pharmacy practitioners that are associated with them in order to motivate and encourage the students to develop the leadership skills among themselves. In contrast the reality is completely different and there is significant disconnection exists between vision related to the future of pharmacy and the real time pharmacy practices in today’s scenario. One of the studies conducted by Dongen (2014, p. 6) argued that professional pharmacist’s leaders are unable to aspire their frontline pharmacy practitioners as well as middle level managers.

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Appendix

Questionnaire

This questionnaire is specifically prepared for an academic research. For the purpose of this research, the researcher has to investigate how pharmacy professionals perceive the value of leadership training programmes. Kindly give your responses by (✔) an appropriate option for each of following question:

Name: ___________________________________________________

Contact Number: ______________________

Email ID: _________________________________

Gender: Male      Female 

Age: 21-30       31-40       41-50       51 and above 

Organization: _____________________

Level of Education

 Bachelor Student
 Master Student
 Doctoral Student
 Post-Doctoral Training

Your occupational experience:

 Below 1 year
 1 year – 3 years
 3 – 8 years
 9-12 years
 12 years and above

Please rate your responses by ✔ the value that you think is more appropriate:

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
1 2 3 4 5
Perceptions Of Pharmacy Professionals 1 2 3 4 5
Student Leadership Development
Student leadership development is the main dimension of leadership training program in pharmacy
It is responsibility of pharmacy institutes to provide valuable experiences to its students in order to successfully integrate leadership development program
Continuous Professional Development
Pharmacists are aware of the benefits of continuous professional development
CPD helps pharmacist in developing new competencies which are related to leadership.
Higher management support and access to the resources that facilitate the learning needs builds confidence and empower the pharmacy professionals, in the process of CPD
Facilitating Self-awareness
Pharmacy leaders are willing to apply all their existing and new knowledge, abilities, talents and skills for addressing latent health care needs of patients
The experience based learning tactics enable the young pharmacists to become self-aware of their potential strengths and weaknesses
Intentional and Visible Institutional Commitment
Pharmacy institutions should have commitment to practice leadership skills for the students
Faculty members and administrators can equally contribute and flourish the environment in pharmacy schools to foster leadership
Raising Profile of Pharmacists
The pharmacy leaders have been expressing their commitment towards the best pharmaceutical practices
Future pharmacists with the vision of leadership and persistent commitment can lead change in the pharmaceutical industry
Value of leadership training programs
Leadership training programs are important for establishing leadership skills in pharmacist.
It helps in providing personal reflection to the pharmacists
Pharmacy residents provide the incorporation of the leadership training program for helping the students and young professionals for meeting the needs to leadership in the profession
Leadership training programs provide value to the development of leadership mechanisms in the pharmacy students.

Thank You

Interview Questions

Q1. In your opinion, what is the significance of leadership programs for the pharmacists

Q2. To what extent, pharmacy trainees show interest in leadership training and understand the importance of developing leadership skills?

Q3. Which leadership positions in a pharmacy organization you find effective for the
student’s learning?

Q4. Do you think that the leading pharmacists are considered to be the influencers stewarding medication to the patients?

Q5. What are your perception regarding Leadership Training Programmes in terms of
continuous professional development and enhancing the pharmacist profiles?

Q6. Please suggest some recommendations regarding leadership for the pharmacists.