Table of Contents

Chapter 5. Results and Conclusion

Pilot study

For Most quantitative research, employs pilot study to test questionnaire is more often recommended, however the use of pilot study not exclusively used in the positivist research, also qualitative research can benefit from pilot studies. The underlying study conducted three semi-structured interviews with managers from, Zain. Each interview had an average duration of 50 minutes. The researcher asked the respondents to discuss the current challenges they face while ensuring the profitability and sustainability in a hypercompetitive environment. The respondents mentioned that the lack of innovation and unwillingness of management to invest in innovative activities due to unclear return on investment is one of the biggest challenge. Moreover, the government’s unfriendly policies are further hampering the profitability of firms, making the survival difficult in an already financially constrained scenario. The respondents specifically mentioned the recent increase in the tax rate that has badly affected the financial position of key telecom players, due to which the investment in the innovative activities has become more challenging. Despite the huge potential of Jordanian telecom market, the top management doesn’t have any vision for embedding the innovation. Other challenges commonly discussed by the participants were lack of innovation labs, government restrictions, high tax rates and lack of collaboration with key stakeholders.The respondents mentioned that other than the external environmental issues, the Jordanian telecom organisation also face the internal resistance and to some extent, prefer to collaborate with the stakeholders by employing traditional collaboration techniques. Moreover, when they were asked about their readiness to operate in an environment characterised by high inside out and high outside in knowledge flow, the respondents commented that current organisational structure and policies might resist while functioning in such environment, and other than external environment, major transformations in the internal organisational environment are also required to overcome the structural resistance. 


A sample of the R&D manager, Innovation operational manager and Telecom Company Manager were interviewed to highlight and explore the challenges to a depth of understanding and authenticity. The research questions attempted to explain the current environment of the Jordanian telecom industry in terms of innovation challenges, embedded innovation opportunities and to what extent they collaborate with the community, relatively under the research area. Semi structured interviews were conducted with the involvement of the managers mentioned above, that were highly appropriate for the research. Sanders (1982) stated for organisational research, three to six individual interviews are sufficient.

Interview outline

Participants were asked to answer the following questions:

Job Position:

Duration of time working at Zain:

Duration of time working in the industry:

Years of experience in the telecoms industry:


The researcher used this interview outline to share the pilot study results. The interview guide was used with flexibility to enable the use of probing strategy during the discussion, which means that the structure was not strictly followed.

1) How will you explain the current environment of Jordanian telecom industry in terms of innovation and creativity?

2) What opportunities you think innovation embeddedness can offer to the Jordanian telecom organisations?

3) What do you think of the innovative collaboration with the community and stakeholders can create a shared value for business as well as society?

4) What are the internal challenges faced by the Jordanian telecom organisations while embedding the innovation within business processes?

5) What are the external challenges faced by the Jordanian telecom organisations while embedding the innovation within business processes?

6) How the above mentioned internal and external challenges can be tackled?

7) Tell me about the governmental support and non-governmental support in adopting the innovative business practices?

8) To what extent you think the governments and non-government support, rigid regulations are responsible for lack of innovation?

9) Your organisations is willing to openly collaborate with the external innovation providers and operate in an innovation embedded environment with high outside in and high inside out knowledge flow?

10) What value do you think the innovative collaboration with the external environmental actors can bring to organisations? To community?

11) Overall, can you suggest a few recommendations to improve the current innovation issues of Jordanian telecom industry? Which immediate remedial steps need to be taken in this regard?

Practical contribution

The key findings of this thesis can be of benefit to 60% of the community in Jordan and in terms of customised products and services as well as helping with unemployment problems which help make use of the skilful market and will also help attract investors to Jordan within the telecommunication industry and information communication technology (ICT) . This will help practitioners as well as those who are in the field of consultancy, who are in charge of the service and product innovation. Also,  it will enable them to develop a better understanding of what factors could possibly be an obstacle and a driving factor to both success and failure analysis, in which it helps them to move forward with a better awareness of the major challenges, issues, barriers and obtain superior positions and to be more competitve in the challenging business environment. The study aims to develop a collaboration framework between the mobile telecoms in Jordan and some TV channel stations in order to provide customers TVs channels, sport, film channels like how they do perform in the United Kingdom.

Theoretical Contribution

The result is expected to fill the gap in Embedded Innovation EI theory and how it can be implemented, managed and accepted by stakeholders. It offers a deep understanding of how EI theory can be tailored to skilled based industry such as telecommunication and to a developing context such as Jordan. Our study will highlight the context related issues that could be changed to fit the developing context and then replicated in similar countries in the MENA region. Also another major contribution for this research is to draw a conclusion into a framework presenting the critical success factors and other pre-requisites essential for multi case analysis, in which the ingredients of this proposed framework were taken from in-depth data collection used specifically for this empirical study.

Potential publication

There is a possibility of giving my research findings a wide publication in policy research journals. 


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