Category

Table of Contents

CHAPTER Five: Conclusion

Introduction

This is the final chapter of the research which is intended towards highlighting a brief set of recommendations and conclusions of the study. In the present chapter, the conclusions are derived from the study findings and analysis which have been conducted in the previous chapter in the context of customer behaviour and online purchases with online retail websites. The conclusions are formulated on the basis of the research purpose, aims of the study and research questions which were addressed in the previous chapter. Hence, the implication of the analysis and findings were also discussed in this chapter and the resultant recommendations were also addresses in the favour of online retail websites and online purchases of the customers. However, the recommendations were derived from the research aim and the findings of the study from the previous chapter. 

Summarised Findings

This section provides summarised findings to the readers in order to understand what results have been derived in the previous chapter. For this purpose, the aim and objectives were reviewed with austerity in order to conduct the analysis and provide summarised findings of the study. The objectives and aim of the research study were apparent to the researcher and readers as it was focused towards critical analysis of the factors affecting customer behaviour on online purchases considering the case of Chinese online retailers Jing Dong and Taobao. However, the objectives of the research were focused towards identifying the factors affecting customer behaviour and understanding the importance of customer behaviour and factors affecting online purchase decision of a customer.

From the analysis conducted in the previous chapter, it was analysed that online purchases from the retail websites is centrally affected by the beliefs and personality of the customer. The personality of the customer enables to purchase products from online websites. This is made evident from the analysis that personality of the customer heavily influences the purchase behaviour of the customer (Chu.and Kim, 2011). It was also analysed from the results that personality traits of an individual or the customer largely affects their buying behaviour because the purchases of the customers are reflected by their personality. In a study conducted by Imam (2013), lifestyle also reflects the purchases of the customers and the things they wear due to the fact that they are brand conscious while other customers are not brand conscious. Therefore, it was analysed from the results that personality of the customers reflects their buying behaviour in the case of online retail websites. Their purchases are influenced by some of the personality traits of the customers.

The results further analysed that attitude of the customers also have a significant impact on their buying behaviour from online retail websites. The participants who were surveyed were of the opinion that they are more concerned by the offerings of online websites such as Jing Dong or Taobao. Furthermore, attitudes of the consumers have learned inclination to the response of an object. In this context, customers hold different attitudes towards different products which are important for the marketing specialist to understand in order to attract customers towards the organisation (Bruwer, Saliba. and Miller, 2011). In addition to the above statement, the results portrayed that attitude of the customers does not always hold negative feelings towards the product as it depends on the expectations of the customers which are catered within the products and services facilitated to the customers from the online retail websites.

According to the analysis carried out in the previous chapter, it was analysed that the social class of a customer largely influences their buying behaviour. However, these results were similar to the findings of Cheah, Phau and Kea (2016) in which it was stated that all humans are social animals where they have some people around them which influence their buying behaviour either directly or indirectly. It was also analysed that the post purchase behaviour of the consumers is relatively affected by the social factors in which marketers does not have a direct role. In addition to this, the emergence of the internet buying of the customers, however, has played a significant role in formulating the behaviour of the customers as customers find useful information about the brands from the people they get influenced or on different online platforms. The results also portrayed that online products are often designed for the customers according to their social class which is the reason customers’ purchases according to their social class and other social factors.

The results analysed by the researcher that culture factors of an individual or the customer help in the purchasing of the products and services from online retail websites. In addition to the above statement, every customer has the different set of beliefs, habits and principles which are developed from the family background and status. Moreover, the influence of the cultural factors on the purchases of the customers is also focused towards gender, age and religion accompanying with the social status (Cheah, Phau and Kea, 2016). This was also analysed that buying behaviour of the consumer varies due to cultural differences and people who belong to different cultures alter their buying behaviour and this has an impact on the customer behaviour due to conflicts and cultural differences that affect the brand image of the online retail stores. Therefore, the cultural factors have a significant influence on the customer behaviour with respect to online purchases from the online retail websites.

In the light of the results analysed by the researcher that the features of online retail websites influence the customer behaviour. Moreover, the survey results also analysed that the increase in the trend of online retailing, there is an impact which leads to discomfort, uncomfortable feeling and anxiety because of risk factors in the online purchases that exist when the customers has to choose one alternative with the benefits and features and that requires to give up the appealing factor and features for other alternatives.

Overall results of the study portrayed a favourable relationship within the independent and dependent variable. The correlation and regression analysis conducted were also in the favour of the study which confirms the hypotheses statement. Furthermore, the survey results were also in the favour of the study as it confirms the relationship between the variables.

Recommendations

Following recommendations are provided to the online retailers Jing Dong and Taobao in order to enhance the online behaviour of the customers towards their customers,

  • It is recommended to the Jing Dong and Taobao for improving the level of information provided on their websites which are an ultimate and legit requirement of the customers as they receive information about the product and services only through the information available on the following websites. Moreover, the enhanced information on the website will make consumers’ feel that the website is secure and trustworthy which directly influences their buying behaviour. In addition to this, the trader information should also be provided in the online retail website of the company so that the consumers get the complete information about checking out the purchase process so that the customer’s money is secured.
  • It is also recommended to the managers of Jing Dong and Taobao websites to change the look of the website because as an online retailer, introducing new features and heading towards the new direction in terms of innovation can enhance the traffic of customer on the website. Frequently, most of the online retailers display their products using celebrities and models that are styled with a different range of clothes which are available on the website. This portrays that how the clothes will originally look for the customers but it is also a method of suggesting which products the customers can prefer or might want to buy. This feature should also be focused towards more user friendliness in order to attract a large number of customers.
  • It is also recommended to the managers of the online retail websites that impose the presence of trust-mark on the website in order to indicate the customers that they can feel confident when shopping on the particular website. Hence, it should be clear to the customer that the trust-mark is present on the website so that they can purchase from the website. Therefore, implementing the trust-mark on the website can increase the traffic of the customer on the company’s website.
  • It is also recommended to the managers to focus on the navigation of the website as the consumers can easily navigate on the website which can enhance their shopping experience. Moreover, the website should focus on reducing unnecessary clicks and implements features such as auto-scroll which helps in avoiding or losing the interest. This should also be focused toward providing a personal experience to the customers in the most effective manner. Therefore, the focus on navigation of the websites is equally important in order to enhance the online purchase and experience of the customer.
  • It also needs to make sure by the managers of the website that it should load quickly. For this purpose, the home page should not include heavy content which creates a delay in loading the website and losing the interest of the customer. The home page should only contain necessary information which is relevant to the customers or could help them in their buying process. Such type of initiative can grab the attention of the customer and it urges them to make the purchase decision with the particular website.
  • The final recommendation of the online retailing website is focused towards they psychology of colours used in the website which requires a prior focus by the website experts. The psychology of colours plays an important role in grabbing the attention of customers and influencing them for making the purchase decision. For this purpose, they should think upon the utilisation of booking engines and try to use green colour for the checkout option. As green can be related to the traffic light which can create a positive association in the minds of the consumers.

Conclusion

In order to conclude the chapter, the main aim and objective of the research were apparent to the readers which were focused towards critically analysing the factors that can affect the online purchases of the customers in case of online retail websites. It has been analysed that there is a significant influence of each factor of the customer behaviour on the online purchased from the retail websites. Moreover, the study also analysed that all factors pertaining to the customers such as cultural factors, social factors, psychological factors and personal factors all were related to the online purchases and largely influences the buying behaviour of the customers with respect to online websites. Furthermore, the online purchases of the customer are largely shaped by the overall outlook of the website which should be attention seeking in order enhance the customers’ attitude. This reflects that online purchases in online retail websites can be portrayed through the factors which affect the buying behaviour of customer.

Future Implications

The future implications are necessary to be highlighted in a study as it focused towards explaining the areas in which the research can be improved in the future by the future researcher who wishes to precede the research in the same field. Hence, the future implications for this study are focused towards the selection of data collection method which was only limited to primary method and collection of quantitative data. The researcher, in this case, can gather the data from the interviews which can be conducted by the managers of both Jing Dong and Taobao who can reflect on their consumer purchasing behaviour and highlights the factors associated with it. Secondly, the research can be focused towards qualitative study along with quantitative study which can further validate and authentic the research. In addition to this, a comparison can be carried out in the favour of the two companies based on the customer traffic and market shares of the websites. These implications should be considered by the future researchers in order to enhance the findings of their study.

Reference

Andrew, S., & Halcomb, E. J. (2007). Mixed methods research is an effective method of enquiry for community health research. Contemporary nurse, 23(2), 145-153.

Antoniou, C., Doukas, J. A., and Subrahmanyam, A. (2013). Cognitive dissonance, sentiment, and momentum. .Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis., 245-275.

Battaglia, M. P. (2008) Non-Probability Sampling.Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods.Sage Publications. Available from: http://www.sagepub.com/chambliss4e/study/chapter/encyc_pdfs/5.2_Nonprobability%20Sampling.pdf

Bernard, H.R. and Bernard, H.R., 2012. Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage Harwell, M.R., 2011. Research design in qualitative/quantitative/mixed methods.CONRAD, Clifton F.; SERLIN, Ronald C. The SAGE Handbook for Research in Education: Pursuing ideas as the keystone

Bruwer, J., Saliba, A. and Miller, B., 2011. Consumer behaviour and sensory preference differences: implications for wine product marketing. Journal of Consumer Marketing28(1), pp.5-18.

Cheah, I., Phau, I., and Kea, G. (2016). Modelling effects of consumer animosity: Consumers’ willingness to buy foreign and hybrid products. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services., 184-192.

Chu, S.C. and Kim, Y., 2011. Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites. International journal of Advertising30(1), pp.47-75.

Chu, S.C. and Kim, Y., 2011. Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites. International journal of Advertising30(1), pp.47-75.

Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S., 2006. Marketing research. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage.Pp. 11.

Daniel, J., 2011. Sampling essentials: Practical guidelines for making sampling choices.Sage.

George, B.P. and Yaoyuneyong, G., 2010. Impulse buying and cognitive dissonance: a study conducted among the spring break student shoppers. Young Consumers11(4), pp.291-306.

Goddard, W., & Melville, S. (2004). Research methodology: An introduction. Juta and Company Ltd. [Online] Available from <http://www.newagepublishers.com/samplechapter/000896.pdf> [Data retrieved on 23/09/2016].

Harwell, M.R., 2011. Research design in qualitative/quantitative/mixed methods.CONRAD, Clifton F.; SERLIN, Ronald C. The SAGE Handbook for Research in Education: Pursuing ideas as the keystone

Hasan, U. and Nasreen, R., 2012. Cognitive dissonance and its impact on consumer buying behaviour. IOSR Journal of Business and Management1(4), pp.07-12.

Hollensen, S., 2015. Marketing management: A relationship approach. Pearson Education.

Horner, S. and Swarbrooke, J., 2016. Consumer behaviour in tourism. Routledge.

Hsin Chang, H. and Wang, H.W., 2011. The moderating effect of customer perceived value on online shopping behaviour. Online Information Review35(3), pp.333-359.

Imam, F. (2013). Gender Differences in Impulsive Buying Behavior and Post-Purchasing Dissonance Under Incentive Conditions. Journal of business strategies. , 23.

Izuma, K., Matsumoto, M., Murayama, K., Samejima, K., Sadato, N. and Matsumoto, K., 2010. Neural correlates of cognitive dissonance and choice-induced preference change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences107(51), pp.22014-22019 Wicklund, R.A. and Brehm, J.W., (2013). Perspectives on cognitive dissonance. Psychology Press.

Javadi, M.H.M., Dolatabadi, H.R., Nourbakhsh, M., Poursaeedi, A. and Asadollahi, A.R., 2012. An analysis of factors affecting on online shopping behavior of consumers. International Journal of Marketing Studies4(5), p.81.

Jie, Z., 2010. Research onthe Integrated Evaluation of Competitiveness for C2C E-commerce Websites——Taking www. taobao. com as an Example [J]. Journal of Intelligence3, p.014.

Joung, H. M. (2014). Fast-fashion consumers’ post-purchase behaviours.  International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management., 688-697.

Kim, C., Galliers, R.D., Shin, N., Ryoo, J.H. and Kim, J., 2012. Factors influencing Internet shopping value and customer repurchase intention. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications11(4), pp.374-387.

Kuhl, J., and Beckmann, J. (2012). Action control: From cognition to behavior. . Springer Science and Business Media.

Kumar, R. (2010) ‘Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners’, SAGE Publications Ltd; Third Edition

Macdonald, S. &Headlam, N. (2011) Research Methods Handbook by Centre for Local Economic Strategies (CLES) Available from: http://www.cles.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Research-Methods-Handbook.pdf.

Marciniak, R., and Gad Mohsen, M. (2016). Post-Purchase Consumer Behaviour, Sustainability and its Influence on Fashion Identity.

Martin, L.L. and Clore, G.L., 2013. Theories of mood and cognition: A user’s guidebook. Psychology Press.

Maxwell, J.A., 2012. Qualitative research design: An interactive approach: An interactive approach. Sage.

McCole, P., Ramsey, E. and Williams, J., 2010. Trust considerations on attitudes towards online purchasing: The moderating effect of privacy and security concerns. Journal of Business Research63(9), pp.1018-1024.

Merriam, S. B. (2009) Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, Jossey-Bass.

Oliver, R. L. (2014). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer.Routledge.

Pickard, A., (2012). Research methods in information.Facet publishing.

Powers, T. L., and Jack, E. P. (2013). The influence of cognitive dissonance on retail product returns. . Psychology and marketing., 724-735.

Rahbar, E. and Abdul Wahid, N., 2011. Investigation of green marketing tools’ effect on consumers’ purchase behavior. Business strategy series12(2), pp.73-83.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. &Thornhill, A. (2012) Research Methods for Business Students (6th Ed.) Pearson.

Shobeiri, S., Mazaheri, E., and Laroche, M. (2015). Shopping online for goods vs. services: where do experiential features help more?.  International Journal of Consumer Studies., 172-179.

Solomon, M. R. (2014). Consumer behavior: Buying, having, and being.

Solomon, M., Russell-Bennett, R. and Previte, J., (2012). Consumer behaviour. Pearson Higher Education AU.

Solomon, M.R., 2014. Consumer behavior: Buying, having, and being. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: prentice Hall.

Verhagen, T. and van Dolen, W., 2011. The influence of online store beliefs on consumer online impulse buying: A model and empirical application. Information & Management48(8), pp.320-327.

Wilcox, A.B., Gallagher, K.D., Boden-Albala, B. and Bakken, S.R., (2012). Research data collection methods: from paper to tablet computers. Medical care, 50, pp.68-73

Wilson, A., Zeithaml, V.A., Bitner, M.J. and Gremler, D.D., 2012. Services marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm. McGraw Hill.

Yin, R. K. (2013) Case study research: Design and methods. Sage publications.,  pp. 15-34

Zhou, T., 2011. Understanding online community user participation: a social influence perspective. Internet Research21(1), pp.67-81.

Questionnaire

The main aim of this study is to critically analyse the factors affecting customer behaviour on online purchases considering the case of Chinese online retailers Jing Dong and Taobao.

Demographics

  1. Gender
  • Male
  • Female
  1. Age
  • 20– 24 years
  • 25 – 29 years
  • 30 – 34 years
  • 35 – 39 years
  • Above 40 years

Independent Variable: Factors affecting Customer Behaviour

Personal factors

  1. The income of the person influences his buying patterns.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. People prefer to purchase those products online which advocate their role in society.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Purchases from online retail websites reflect a consumer lifestyle.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree

Social Factors

  1. Social class can influence behaviour of the customers on online retail websites.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Friends and family members can influence an online purchase decision of the customers.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Online retail stores motivate the customer to buy the products as it meets their social needs.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree

Psychological factors

  1. The consumer perception towards online products and the brand also influences his buying decision.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Level of motivation towards online products influences the buying behaviour of the consumers.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Online products create a positive attitude of the customers to buy the products from online retail websites.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree

Risk factors

  1. Low risk in the online retail websites can influence the customer behaviour.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Consumer prefers to buy from those online websites which have secured payment system.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Consumers prefer to buy from those online websites which have less product risk.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree

Dependent Variable: Online Purchases

  1. Online purchases are largely influenced by consumer attitude towards online retailing store.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. The online purchases are influence by cultural and social norms.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. The performance of the products should meet the expectation of the customers to influence online purchases.
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree