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Table of Contents

CHAPTER FOUR: THEMATIC ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Introduction

This chapter is designed in order to present the interview results for the research which has been conducted by the researcher. The section has provided insights given by the interviewees who are the employees of Jaguar Company, where the interview was carried out in Shanghai, China. In addition to the interview results, the chapter has incorporated discussion on the achievement of objectives which determine how the research was completed by the researcher. The next heading discusses a detailed thematic analysis which is focused on the product standardisation and innovation measures implemented in Jaguar, Shanghai.

Thematic Analysis

Significance of Product Standardisation which leads to Innovation in the Automobile Sector

Of the 20 employees invited to participate in the study, all of the participants were interviewed which represents different roles within the respective domain in Jaguar and who have provided their valuable insights on the product standardisation which leads to innovation in the company. Among the 20 employees interviewed by the researcher, it was reflected on their statements that they all regarded product standardisation and innovation in the automobile industry as important which can lead to the success of the company. When question regarding importance of product standardisation was being asked by the automobile manager, he stated that,

“I believe that product standardisation strategy particularly in the automobile companies is an overall belief identifying that the world is becoming more homogenous with the implication of communication and technology and since the preferences and tastes of the consumers are constantly changing according to the present trends in the vehicles which are the reason I personally think that every company should focus on standardising and yet sustain innovation.”

In response to this statement, the 1st employee who was the assistant manager of the company provided his insights on the significance of product standardisation that,

“Considering the current globalised situation in the present business world, it is necessary that companies should focus on standardising their products rather than adopting because it eventually helps in sustaining competitive advantage.  Companies can enhance their performance within the industry they are performing and I also believe that the challenges associated with the globalisation and innovation can easily be focused on by means of product standardisation in the automobile industry”.

From this response, it was articulated that challenges pertaining to the globalisation in the business situation can be easily be unravelled and will help the company in meeting their objectives and attaining a sustainable competitive advantage. Moreover, the 4th employee of Jaguar who was the senior manager of the company stated in the response that,

“I think it is interesting to see this holistic view on car development. Incorporating the several pillars of sustainability idea at the engineering level in my view is a worthwhile and very fruitful concept.

“I think it is a quite interesting question and I really want to comment on it from a detailed perspective on the impression of product standardisation. I believe it is an efficient method which is adopted by the companies for reducing the operational cost and further enhancing the quality of the products and services delivered to the customers. It keeps us aligned with the preferences and expectations of our respected customers and also matches their desire on what they require in a vehicle. For this, we also try our level best to bring something innovative in our every model launched as recently we have developed a cargo sensor system so that the towing can be made safer for the people. So yes, I believe it is significant for the technology-based industries.”

It can be observed from the interview responses presented above that there were mixed reviews regarding the importance of product standardisation into the companies as it is aimed towards innovating the products and services within an organisation.

Evaluation of Factors which underlies the Product Standardisation leading to Innovation in Jaguar

In the present situation, the standardisation of the products is considered as the significant part in the innovation and transformation of the business for which a number of companies have opted for. Besides the reduction in the cost of operations, the standardisation of the products and services can lead to innovation which can take into account the preferences of the customers. On the evaluation of the factors which underlies the product standardisation, it has been stated by 11th employee who was the marketing analyst of the company reflected in the interview that,

“If we look into the benefits of product standardisation, it is necessary to make sure that the automotive industry delivers their policy objectives adequately regarding the product standardisation so as to make clear what will be incorporated in the product standardisation of the vehicles. I would also like to add here that, we are able to clearly monitor the demand and supply for our particular model while we incorporate an innovation measure in the model.  Our car model RC 5754 was the first car in the world which consists of new grade of aluminium and contains high level of recyclable material and we were able to do so by the implementation of product standardisation. Therefore, it gives us a competitive edge over the competitors.”

In response to this question, the 15th employee of the company who was the automobile engineer of the company stated in the interview that,

“I would like to comment the same thing that undoubtedly product standardisation helps in reducing cost and different operations of the company, yet the major advantage of this thing is it enhances the quality and reliability of the product that eventually make the customer highly loyal towards you. The designers of our company are highly motivated towards merging the traditional designs with the present needs of the customers that actually makes the standardisation unique and interesting. It feels just like the music DJ, mixing the touches of classical songs with the high-beat songs to get a right amount of thrill in the song.”

The comment given by the automobile engineer of the company was interesting yet valuable for the research as he described how standardisation processes benefits the company. It was further highlighted by the manager of the company that,

“I am of the opinion that standardisation processes eat a lot of time of the designers and engineers along with the research and development team because the thing which we incorporate in the design is the need of the customer as creativity is the key part which our designers focus on to promote innovation in each model introduced.  As a standardisation measure, we are right now working on voice control activation and predictive gestures as we entirely focus on innovating ourselves with the help of innovation. So I must add here that standardisation helps in fostering innovation and creativity for our company.”

From the results presented in the interview responses, it can be asserted that most of the respondents were positive towards product standardisation as it eventually leads to innovative and creative measures in the company. The results are consistent with the study of Jiang et al., (2016) which highlighted that standardisation is regarded as the conventional wisdom as it helps and facilitates the organisation rise above the continuum and finds a balance between innovation and standardisation.

Challenges Faced by the Managers of Jaguar while Implementing Product Standardisation for Promoting Innovation

The product standardisation has certain challenges which are faced by the managers of the company for an effective promotion of innovation. In the automobile industry, the challenges are quite intense as it incorporates social and ethical problems which need to be rectified during the standardisation of the cars. For reflecting on the challenges faced by the managers of the company, the assistant manager stated on it that,

“We face certain issues in the implementation of standardisation on the vehicles and top-most rated issue we face is with the effective implementation of the ICT technologies for bringing transport and mobility in the cars as it provides major advantages to the customers in the future. I would also like to add that our proposed designs are based on the reduction on congestion and carbon emissions in order to make ourselves complied with the societal and environmental responsibilities.”

In response the answer given by the assistant management, the senior manager of the company stated in the interview that,

Our challenges are more included towards bringing effective security and safety measures for the customers and make significant contribution to the environment safety and handle the societal pressures. As the part of Jaguar’s commitment, we thrive ourselves to constantly improve the efficiency of the cars by creating a wide range of fuel efficient Ingenium engines which also have a feature of saving energy with an intelligent start that can optimise the energy. We never ran away with the challenges as we face them pragmatically and wisely so that the competitive advantage of the company would stay there forever.

From this response, it was reflected that the main challenge faced by the company is directed towards the environmental and social issues and hence creating a sustainable competitive advantage for the economy of the country. On the challenges faced by Jaguar, one of the employees among the respondents stated in the interview that,

“There are some crucial points where the OEMs perform for influencing congestions in the production of cars. We face congestion issues while standardising the cars as for this we have a got a very intelligent vehicle management system that mainly understands the route the vehicle is going to take and yet the car can automatically do an automatic scheduling and most of the decisions at the time of congestion is made by that device. We are in constant agreement with IBM who is working on these devices where the car can interact with the external environment for managing the urban mobilities. In this manner, we devise strategies constantly to innovate our systems with the help of product standardisation.”

The responses collected by the interviewees belonging to Jaguar, Shanghai have given mixed reviews where the managers have reflected that they continuously devise strategies for mitigating the challenges. Moreover, the company is also focused towards the reduction of carbon emissions and congestions caused by the vehicles in order to stay competitive in the automobile industry.

The Role of Product Standardization in Promoting Innovation in the Company

In the contemporary business situation, the innovation has played a significant role in driving economic growth of a country and development within the context of being a developed country. In the light of Bernardo (2014), innovation has been explained as an application of modern ideas from the perspective of new products, procedures, and other factors or the strategy of the firm which is aimed towards creating value for the consumers. However, the organisations are looking for the ways in which they can transform their operations and enhance the experience of the customers within the industry so that they can benefit different types of standardisation processes and features for facilitating the needs and expectations of the customer. On the role of product standardisation on the promotion of innovation within an organisation, it was stated by one of the employees that,

“I believe that there is a huge importance of standardisation in the context of innovation because it helps the engineers of the company in empowering our engineers to reflect their creativity in the cars by introducing new designs and innovation which can fascinate the customers with an accurate approach of the company. However, for a longer period of time in the automotive design, everything was centred on the driver of the vehicle, we are not all set to introduce driverless cars which were only achievable with our standardisation processes for which our engineers are working day and night to promote innovation in our car models. So yes I can say that standardisation has a direct role in the innovation especially in our company.”

In response to this statement, another employee of the company stated in the interview responses upon asking on the role of product standardisation on the innovation,

“Yes I personally feel that there is much sign of the product standardisation with the innovation as If we see from a pure design standpoint, we have to create something which outshines the company and hence enriches the relationship of the company with the consumers. For this, it is not necessary that one should go with the flow; it is necessary that company should think out of the box and be a trend setter on its own rather than going with the flow. So I feel that the standardisation of the product can foster and stimulate innovation in the company.”

It has also been stated by another employee of the company that,

“Innovation is the USP of our company as most of the strategies are formulated keeping in mind the fact that our organisation is highly focused towards innovating every model with a new technology or a feature which meets the desires and preference so the customers. Here I think that it is highly important for our company to carry out our task naturally as consumers have strong connections with their car. So I believe that the standardisation and innovation should go hand in hand so that our company can gain a sustainable competitive advantage over the competitors. It is because of the great designs made by our designers and the standardisation processes which help our company in making a strong connection with the consumers. However, in the present marketplace, the standardisation and innovation is our greatest differentiator where everything becomes comparable in terms of quality and technology.”

 Overall results of the interview have depicted that majority of the interviewees were in the concerned about the challenges related to the product standardisation in the vehicles. Moreover, they also regarded as standardisation of the vehicles highly significant because it can foster innovation in the company and create a sustainable competitive advantage in the automobile industry.

Discussion

Objective 1: To understand the concept and significance of product standardisation

The second objective of the research is presented by the researcher which is directed towards the studying the factors affecting product standardisation that leads to innovation. The objective was efficaciously accomplished by the researcher by reviewing different theories and concepts related to the factors affecting the standardisation of products leading to innovation. On viewing different studies and theories, it was revealed that with the increase in the globalisation, various organisations want to transform and bring innovation into their operations in various directions for sustaining a strong competitive advantage in the industry.

Moreover, there are certain factors which affect the product standardisation in the automobile companies such as the company is able to reduce their cost by standardising the products as it leads to innovative measures in the company. In addition to the above statement, the factors which influence the standardisation of the products are mainly concerned with the fact that the companies are in a better position for monitoring and evaluating the manufacturing process of the product. However, with the process of monitoring the companies can ensure that the quality of the products which are manufactured by the OEM for the customers against their needs and expectations.

Objective 2: To study the factors affecting product standardisation that leads to innovation

The second objective of the research is presented by the researcher which is directed towards the studying the factors affecting product standardisation that leads to innovation. The objective was efficaciously accomplished by the researcher by reviewing different theories and concepts related to the factors affecting the standardisation of products leading to innovation. On viewing different studies and theories, it was revealed that with the increase in the globalisation, various organisations want to transform and bring innovation into their operations in various directions for sustaining a strong competitive advantage in the industry.

Moreover, there are certain factors which affect the product standardisation in the automobile companies such as the company is able to reduce their cost by standardising the products as it leads to innovative measures in the company. In addition to the above statement, the factors which influence the standardisation of the products are mainly concerned with the fact that the companies are in a better position for monitoring and evaluating the manufacturing process of the product. However, with the process of monitoring the companies can ensure that the quality of the products which are manufactured by the OEM for the customers against their needs and expectations.

Objective 3: To study the role of product standardization in innovation within the case of Jaguar

The third objective proposed by the researcher was theoretical in nature which is focused towards studying the role of product standardisation in the innovation with the case of Jaguar. The objective was, however, achieved by reviewing theories and interviewing the employee of Jaguar to which it was identified that the product standardisation plays a significant role in the promotion of innovation within the company as the management regard the element of standardisation of products as highly significant because it helps them in sustaining their competitive advantage within the automobile industry in which the company is operating. In addition, it helps the company in reducing cost while fostering innovation at the same time. Moreover, the employees of the company regarded innovation as the crucial factor which contributes significantly to the success of the company.

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Appendices

Interview Questions

Q1. What is the significance of product standardisation at your organisation?

Q2. To what extent product standardisation is applied in your organisation?

Q3. In your opinion, what benefits you perceive underlies the standardisation of the products?

Q4. What are major challenges for product standardization when innovation is promoted in this process?

Q5. What are major challenges for product standardization when innovation is promoted in this process?

Q6. In your opinion, does the product standardisation helps in sustaining competitive advantage for your organisation?

Q7. In your opinion, does the product standardisation have an optimistic future in the automotive industry?

Q8. Please provide some suggestions on the role of product standardisation in innovation within the automotive industry?

 

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
Brand love (Independent variable)
I am passionate about brand
I love this brand
I am very attached to this brand
This brand is pure delight
This brand is totally awesome
This brand makes me feel good
This is a wonderful brand
This brand makes me feel very happy
Consumer buying behaviour (dependent variable)
I purchase a brand that reflects the type of person I see myself to be.
I purchase a brand that facilitates me to communicate with my self-identity.
I purchase a brand that helps me to express myself.
I like brands that depicts symbol of social status.
I prefer a brand that helps me to fit important social situations.
I like to be seen associated with this specific brand.
I like to plan my purchases rather than relying on impulse.
There is impact of brand love on consumer buying