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Table of Contents

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Research methodology is the essential part of the research. It is useful in understanding the structure of the study and methods and techniques applied enable the researcher to generate the results. The research methodology is inclusive of research philosophy, research design, sample size, sampling techniques, data collection tool, and data collection methods and data analysis. At the end of the study ethical considerations and limitations are being discussed.

Research Philosophy

According to Edson, Hennning and Sankaran (2016) research philosophy is designed as the philosophical framework taking into consideration the subjective reality of the research study. There are different types of research philosophies including interpretivism, positivism and realism .The research philosophy is also categorized as research paradigm. Interpretivism involves maximum participation of the individuals.

The following study is based on the positivism approach. This study was based on survey questionnaire and quantitative analysis.

Research Approach

            According to Savin-Baden and Major (2013) there are two types of research approaches namely inductive and deductive research approaches. In the inductive approach the data is gathered from interviews from the participants and is inclusive of their past experiences. The inductive approach enables the researcher to understand the theories and concepts related to a specific phenomenon and generate a theory based on the analysis. The theory assists the researcher in the development of the hypothesis.

However, the deductive approach is based on the evaluation of the existing theories based on the past literature. Hypothesis is formulated based on the past data. The deductive approach is generated based on the generation of hypothesis and testing it through application of the statistical analysis.

In this research the deductive approach was utilized to generate the statistical facts and figures about the brand love and its association to the dietary supplements in the FMCG industry.

Relational Benefits for Consumers and Company

In the intensely competitive business environment it has become significantly important for the companies to develop outstanding relationship with the customers. In this regards Marzo et al. (2005) argued that the concept of loyalty has played an influential role in helping the companies in the development of relationship with the customers while ensuring that the promises and expectations of the customers are met in effective manner. As a result of customer loyalty companies have expanded their relationship with the existing customers while ensuring that new promises with the potential customers are kept in optimal manner (Gustafsson et al. 2005: 216). Under the light of the academia it has been indicated that maintaining a stable relationship with the customers has eventually increased their confidence in the offerings of the company and have significantly reduced the risk of switching to other companies. Furthermore the other advantages associated with relationship with the customers include the achievement of economies of scale and operational excellence (Rauyruen and Miller 2007: 27).

            The benefits associated with developing and maintaining outstanding relationship with the customers can be broadly categorised into social and functional benefits. At one end social benefits are more concerned with the confortable and pleasant relationship with the customers. Moreover Marzo et al. (2005) indicated that the development of stable relationship with the customers eventually results in the reduction of problems associated with the purchase; thus the company can improve its overall efficacy with respect to the decision making. On the other hand the functional benefits associated with customer loyalty include; convenience time saving and purchasing decisions (Rauyruen and Miller 2007: 27).

            With respect to the relational benefits for the company it has been indicated that companies have the opportunity to retain its existing customers rather than working towards the attraction of potential customers (Palmatier et al. 2007: 197). In this regards it has been indicated that customer loyalty has played an influential role in improving the overall growth and success of the business by engaging the customers with the offered products and services. Furthermore the loyalty amongst the customers also helps the company in establishing and strengthening the communicate route with the customers which eventually prevents the competitors to set higher prices for the offered products and services (Palmatier et al. 2007 : 197).

Research Design

It is essential to develop a research design so that the researcher easily categorizes the data collection process. According to Creswell (2013) there are three types of research designs including qualitative research, quantitative research design and mixed method design. The qualitative research design is associated to the collection of the data from the participants through conduction of detailed interviews. The tool used to collect the data is the open ended questionnaire. The qualitative data cannot be quantified. Qualitative research design is involved in collection of data that is based on the analysis of the detailed interviews from the participants.

The quantitative research design on the contrary is based on the numeric data. The collected data is analysed through a statistical software and application of various test and techniques (Creswell 2013). The data is then presented in graphical and tabular forms. The data collected for the purpose of this study was based on both the qualitative and quantitative research design. The qualitative data was collected to analyse the response of the respondents while the quantitative data was collected to generate statistical figures. Thus the research design for the study herein was the quantitative research design. Mixed method research is more beneficial as compared to qualitative and quantitative because the data gathered is rich in context and it becomes easier to accomplish the objective of the research and encounter the research problem easily.

Data Collection Method

According to Wright et al., (2016: 2230) there are two types of data collection including primary and secondary data collection. The primary data collection includes the data from the sources as detailed interviews from the participants, focus groups and surveys. The primary data is collected by the researcher himself. The data is in its raw form, not published before. The researcher performs tests and experiments to generate results or perform thematic analysis based on the interviews collected from the participants. The other type of data collection includes secondary data collection in which data is collected from the secondary sources.

The data is gathered from newspapers, articles, websites, journals and the work of the past researchers is acknowledged through proper referencing. Secondary data collection is based on the already existing researches and researcher collects the data to develop a clear understanding of the past data.

For this study the researcher collected the data from both the sources including primary by interviewing and survey collection from male and female participants living in UK aged between 16 to 35 years. The data was also collected from the secondary resources to conduct an analysis and develop an understanding of brand love from the past researchers.

Sampling Method

According to Trayer and Kohn (2017: 32) sampling methods are used to enable researcher recognize and recruit respondents for the purpose of the study. The data gathered from these respondents represents the overall target population. The complete population is difficult to analyse due to the cost and time constraints. The sampling methods are classified as probability sampling and non-probability sampling methods.

Probability sampling technique is defined as the data collection process where the respondents have an equal opportunity of being selected. There are different types of probability sampling techniques including simple random sampling technique, systematic random sampling and many others. The random sampling techniques involve the collection of data randomly with each participants having equal opportunity of being selected. The cluster random sampling is another form of probability sampling technique involving the collection of data in clusters and then selecting the sample size from the clusters.

According to Riley et al., (2014) the non-probability sampling technique does not provide an equal opportunity for the respondents to be equally selected. Convenience sampling and snow-ball sampling are types of non-probability sampling techniques. In convenient sampling technique the researcher collects the data based on the accessibility and availability options.

The following study involved the collection of the data through convenience sampling technique which was completed in a two months duration time frame. The researcher gathered the data on the basis of the convenience and under his available budget constraints.

Sample Size

The data was collected from a sample of two hundred individuals living in United Kingdom. The individuals were aged between 16 to 35 years. For this purpose, a survey questionnaire was designed based on 13-15 close-ended questions which would be conducted by the consumers of the UK who consume Opti-Turmeric as their dietary supplement.

Data Analysis Technique

According to Twisk (2013) data analysis is one of the most important part of the study. A number of tools and techniques’ are used to analyse the data and determine the association between the dependent and independent variables. The data collected through this study was analysed using the statistical software namely SPSS. The results generated through the SPSS were represented graphically in form of tables and charts.

Triangulation

According to Carter et al., (2014) the data was collected from qualitative and quantitative research design thus it was necessary to triangulate the data in order to visualize the definitive measurements as provided by the data. This process enabled the researcher to understand that how long term brand loyalty in the different consumer segments may be established in best way. The final aspect of the analysis was shown in the chapter four including the data analysis and representation showing a relation to the existing state of knowledge in this field.

Research Limitations

Every researcher faces limitations during the course of the study. One limitation of the research was the external validity. The scope of the study was limited and cannot be generalized. Due to the budget and time constraints the researcher collected the data from the primary sources on the basis of his convenience and accessibility. Human error is something that cannot be mitigated. The sample size was short due to the limited time frame and budget constraints.

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Appendix

Questionnaire

Demographics

Gender

  • Male
  • Female

 

Age

  • 18-23
  • 24-30
  • 31-36
  • 37-43
  • More than 43

 

Average Income (monthly, in US dollars)

  • 2500-3500
  • 3501-4500
  • 4501-5500
  • 5501-6500
  • More than 6500
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
Brand love (Independent variable)
I am passionate about brand
I love this brand
I am very attached to this brand
This brand is pure delight
This brand is totally awesome
This brand makes me feel good
This is a wonderful brand
This brand makes me feel very happy
Consumer buying behaviour (dependent variable)
I purchase a brand that reflects the type of person I see myself to be.
I purchase a brand that facilitates me to communicate with my self-identity.
I purchase a brand that helps me to express myself.
I like brands that depicts symbol of social status.
I prefer a brand that helps me to fit important social situations.
I like to be seen associated with this specific brand.
I like to plan my purchases rather than relying on impulse.
There is impact of brand love on consumer buying